Agriculture Production Data in Pennsylvania 1850 census PA Historical and Museum Commission

data.pa.gov | Last Updated 11 Oct 2017

Agriculture has guided Pennsylvania's economic growth and cultural development and has profoundly shaped the lands and people of the Commonwealth. The 1850 Federal Decennial Census was the first time in history that data was collected on agricultural production at a national scale. The census manuscripts for Pennsylvania were digitized by PHMC from the original documents in the collections of the National Archives and Records Administration. This dataset includes agricultural production data compiled from Schedule 4 - Productions of Agriculture of the 1850 census and aggregated at the county and municipality level. The visualization combines a timeless practice with the latest advancements in technology. The interactive map of Pennsylvania depicting the value of farms and amounts of livestock provides users with a glimpse into agricultural life in 1850.

Tags: ag, agriculture, production, economic, land, census, culture

This dataset has the following 45 columns:

Column NameAPI Column NameData TypeDescriptionSample Values
CountycountytextName of the Pennsylvania County. Pennsylvania has 67 counties. Counties omitted from the Data and reason: Cameron - Did not exist until March 29, 1860; created from parts of Clinton, Elk, McKean, and Potter Counties Forest - No farms were recorded in this county; mostly forest area Lackawanna - Did not exist until August 13, 1878; created from the eastern half of Luzerne County Snyder - Did not exist until March 2, 1855; created from the southern half of Union County
MunicipalitymunicipalitytextName of the Pennsylvania Municipality. In 2017 there are 2,561 municipalities.
Municipality TypetypetextType of PA Municipality. Such as Township, Borough, city, etc.
Farm CountfarmsnumberThe returns of all farms or plantations on the 1st day of June 1850, the produce of which amounts to $100 in value, are to be included in this schedule; but it is not intended to include the returns of small lots, owned or worked by persons following mechanical or other pursuits, where the productions are not $100 in value. In 1850, $100 is roughly equal to $3,000 in 2017.
Improved Land Acresimproved_landnumberNumber of acres of improved land on the 1st day of June 1850, by which is meant cleared and used for grazing, grass or tillage or which is now fallow, connected with or belonging to the farm which the assistant marshal is reporting. It is not necessary that is should be contiguous, but it must be owned or managed by the person whose name is inserted in the column.
Unimproved Land Acresunimproved_landnumberNumber of acres or unimproved land on the 1st day of June 1850 such as a wood lot or other land, the timber or range of which is used for farm purposes. It is not necessary that is should be contiguous to the improved land.
Farm Cash Valuecash_valuenumberActual cash value of whole number of improved and unimproved acres on the 1st day of June 1850.
Implements and Machinery Valueimplements_machinerynumberAggregate value of all farming or planting implements and machinery used to cultivate and produce crops including wagons, thrashing machines, cotton gins and sugar mills. All implements and machinery used to cultivate and produce crops and fit the same for market or consumption on the 1st day of June 1850.
Horses CounthorsesnumberWhole number of Horses which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Asses and Mules Countasses_mulesnumberWhole number of Asses and Mules which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Milch Cows Countmilch_cowsnumberWhole number of milch cows which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older. Milch Cows are Cattle that are reared for their milk. More commonly called a Dairy or Milk cow today.
Working Oxen Countworking_oxennumberWhole number of Working Oxen which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Other Cattle Countother_cattlenumberWhole number of other cattle (the number of all cattle not before enumerated) which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Sheep CountsheepnumberWhole number of Sheep which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Swine CountswinenumberWhole number of Swine which belong to the farm on the 1st day of June 1850, which are one year old and older.
Live Stock Valuelive_stock_valuenumberThe cash value of all live stock on hand on the 1st day of June 1850.
Wheat BushelswheatnumberWheat measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Rye BushelsryenumberRye measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Indian Corn Bushelsindian_cornnumberIndian Corn measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Oats BushelsoatsnumberOats measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Tobacco PoundstobacconumberTobacco measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Wool PoundswoolnumberWool measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Peas Beans Bushelspeas_beansnumberPeas and Beans measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been shown in 1848.
Irish Potatoes Bushelsirish_potatoesnumberIrish Potatoes measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Sweet Potatoes Bushelssweet_potatoesnumberSweet Potatoes measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Barley BushelsbarleynumberBarley measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Buckwheat BushelsbuckwheatnumberBuckwheat measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Orchard Products Valueorchard_products_valuenumberThe cash value of all Orchard Products on hand on the 1st day of June 1850.
Wine GallonswinenumberWine measured in gallons on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Garden Produce Valuegarden_produce_valuenumberThe cash value of all Garden Produce on hand on the 1st day of June 1850.
Butter PoundsbutternumberButter measured in pounds on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June.
Cheese PoundscheesenumberCheese measured in pounds on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June.
Hay TonshaynumberHay measured in whole number of tons raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Clover Seed Bushelsclover_seednumberClover Seed measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Other Seeds Bushelsother_seedsnumberOther Seeds measured in whole number of bushels raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Hops PoundshopsnumberHops measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Hemp TonshempnumberHemp measured in whole number of tons raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Flax PoundsflaxnumberFlax measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Flaxseed PoundsflaxseednumberFlaxseed measured in pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850. The grain which is gathered in that year is meant, though it may have been sown in 1848.
Silk Cocoons Poundssilk_cocoonsnumberSilk Cocoons measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Maple Sugar Poundsmaple_sugarnumberMaple Sugar measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Molasses GallonsmolassesnumberMolasses measured in whole number of gallons raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Beeswax Honey Poundsbeeswax_honeynumberBeeswax Honey measured in whole number of pounds raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.
Homemade Manufactures Valuehome_made_manufacturesnumberThe cash value of all articles manufactured within the year preceding the 1st day of June 1850, in or by the family, whether for home use or for sale. If the raw material has been purchased for such manufacture, the value of such raw material should not be included: the object being to ascertain the value of manufacturers by the family from their own productions, or the value of the labor expended on the production of others. This discrimination is important.
Animals Slaughtered Valueanimals_slaughterednumberThe cash value of animals slaughtered raised on the farm during the year ending the 1st day of June 1850.