- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:26:53.000Z
<p>The goal of this project is to develop a specialized GPS sensor prototype to enable high-performance GPS navigation for future cis-lunar and lunar missions. This sensor will be based on the NavCube, the next-generation version of the record-setting high-altitude MMS-Navigator GPS receiver. The proposed GPS sensor will target future lunar missions including robotic and human spaceflight applications. The proposed lunar GPS sensor will combine enhanced GPS signal processing and use the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) flight software to provide position and timing information for future lunar missions and cis-lunar missions, and will benefit crewed and un-crewed science and exploration missions.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T16:15:24.000Z
NASA's exploration and scientific missions will produce terabytes of information. As NASA enters a new phase of space exploration, managing large amounts of scientific and operational data will become even more challenging. Robots conducting planetary exploration will produce data for selection and preparation of exploration sites. Robots and space probes will collect scientific data to improve understanding of the solar system. Satellites in low Earth orbit will collect data for monitoring changes in the Earth's atmosphere and surface environment. Key challenges for all these missions are understanding and summarizing what data have been collected and using this knowledge to improve data access. TRACLabs and CMU propose to develop context aware image manipulation software for managing data collected remotely during NASA missions. This software will filter and search large image archives using the temporal and spatial characteristics of images, and the robotic, instrument, and environmental conditions when images were taken. It also will implement techniques for finding which images show a terrain feature specified by the user. In Phase II we will implement this software and evaluate its effectiveness for NASA missions. At the end of Phase II, context aware image manipulation software at TRL 5-6 will be delivered to NASA.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:34:09.000Z
Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in robotics, is when a robot constructions a set of geometrical features of its environment (mapping) and uses sensing to estimate where it is relative to those features (localization). For example, the robot learns where walls are in a building and then can learn how to navigate between a start and goal without hitting them. SLAM sensors have been lidar (3D laser sensor like on Kinect) or bi/tri-ocular (two or three image cameras). This proposal suggests the use of a monocular sensor which is just a single camera that records images without any 3D data. Using the accelerometer and gyroscope along with the camera in a smartphone, some 3D information can be recovered. By using computer vision techniques, the sets of features are found in a sequence of camera frames. From the accelerometer and gyroscope data these are then fitted to statistical estimates of where these features are in the 3D environment. Then using sensor fusion techniques the data is compiled and then traditional SLAM algorithms are used. This would allow SLAM within lower weight, cost, and power sensors. The Smart SPHERES are a direct application of monocular SLAM that are being used to research robotic autonomy. Robotic navigation autonomy is important because it enables robots to aid astronauts with their numerous tasks around the space station with their highly limited time. Second, the technology extends to exploration probes such as the mars rovers which have too much of a communication time delay to be operated purely by teleoporation.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:44:08.000Z
The objective of my proposal is to determine the stability of a spacecraft when in the vicinity of an asteroid. Orbiting an asteroid is a difficult task. The unique shapes in which asteroids are formed cause the gravity around them to be non-uniform. This causes perturbations in the movement of a spacecraft around an asteroid. Solar radiation pressure can also alter the orbit of a spacecraft around an asteroid. With multiple perturbations on a spacecraft, orbiting an asteroid can become unstable over time. This instability could lead to the spacecraft escaping from the body or crashing into the asteroid. By determining an algorithm that can define the stability of a spacecraft around an asteroid, safe and stable orbits can be found for an operational spacecraft. In order to achieve a greater understanding of the stability of a spacecraft in the vicinity of an asteroid, the dynamics of the spacecraft around the asteroid must be well understood. All perturbing forces that will act on a spacecraft orbiting an asteroid must be accurately modeled. This includes mathematical modeling of the gravity around the asteroid due to its non-spherical shape, third-body dynamics from the sun, and solar radiation pressure. Rotation of the spacecraft and asteroid will also be part of accurately modeling the dynamics of this system. The largest portion of the research will be focused on determining what the proper definition of stability is for the spacecraft. Stability of a system can be defined in various ways using multiple stability analysis methods. Because these differing methods often result in subtle differences that have significant consequences, the determination of stability for a spacecraft mission can be difficult to find using mathematical definitions that apply to practical needs of the mission. Therefore finding a meaningful mathematical definition for stability that can be applied to an operation mission will be the core of my research. Lyapunov stability will used as a preliminary tool to give insight into more complex methods of determining stability. This includes the stability methods such as Lyapunov characteristic exponents, FLI, and MEGNO. For future missions to asteroids this allows the spacecraft to orbit naturally without as many correctional maneuvers. Also, understanding the stability of a spacecraft around an asteroid will give future missions more confidence in opting to orbit in close proximity of the asteroid, which will allow for more science to be obtained. Gaining knowledge on the behavior of a spacecraft around an asteroid will help define go to stable orbits that are dependable for the spacecraft to stay in for long periods of time. By better understanding the dynamics and stability of spacecraft motion around an asteroid, a spacecraft will be able to achieve better understanding of the asteroids size, shape, rotation, gravity field, and mass. Therefore it encourages a relationship where a better understanding of the dynamics of the spacecraft causes more science to be found; and with better science comes more refined models that improve the dynamics of the orbiting spacecraft. This information can be used for both scientific human missions and resource extraction missions to asteroids. NASA plans on landing humans on an asteroid with the next generation of crewed space flight vehicles. With human life on the line, knowledge of how the crew transport vehicle will behave orbiting the asteroid needs to be well known.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:38:37.000Z
This proposal seeks to advance the understanding of full-scale Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) in support of NASA's Space Technology Roadmap, TABS element 9.1.4, Deployable Hypersonic Aeroshells. The HIAD system is a low technology readiness level (TRL) space technology that has the potential to deliver the size of payloads that will be required for human missions to Mars. The current state of the art Mars payload delivery is estimated at 1.5 metric tons. However, payloads on the order of 20 to 60 metric tons will be required for a successful human mission to Mars. Upwards of a 40 fold increase in payload mass represents a significant jump from the currently available decelerator technology. The HIAD system consists of multiple, inflatable tori that are strapped together other around a rigid center-body in a cone configuration and are covered with a thermal protection shield. The individual tori consist of a flexible fabric shell with integral axial cords that are rigidified by the inflation pressure. The HIAD system offers considerable benefits from traditional rigid aeroshells including a small storage volume and a mass to area ratio that is not constrained by the size of the launch vehicle. The HIAD system can be effective in thin atmospheres. Work to date has focused on quantifying the structural behavior of HIAD materials, structural components and test-scale HIAD structures, (3 m major diameter). Although engineers have had success modeling the HIAD system at the test-scale, there is still much unknown about how the structure will behave at a full or human-scale, (~20 m major diameter). Scalability remains one of the major technical challenges associated with deployable aeroshells. Design exploration and optimization of human-scale HIAD structures are important next steps in the development of the HIAD technology. A critical component is the development of computationally efficient structural analysis methods. Modeling efforts to date have focused on high-fidelity yet computationally expensive shell-based finite element (FE) modeling. This work proposes to develop computationally inexpensive three-dimensional beam-based FE models to analyze the HIAD system. Since the HIAD consists of multiple, slender, inflatable members, it is a good candidate for beam based FE modeling. The analysis tool will necessarily incorporate both large deformations and nonlinear material constitutive relationships to accurately capture the structural response of the inflatable members. The HIAD system will be modeled with torus and strap elements as well as elements between tori to capture tori interaction. The material and component level models will be validated with an extensive set of existing test data. Developing a beam-element-based simulation technology will allow for exploration of optimal HIAD configuration and will greatly enhancing our understanding of the HIAD structure. The use of optimization methods to explore the feasible design space can often lead to non-intuitive designs and configurations. For example, exploring non-axisymmetric designs or designs incorporating a radial spoke configuration from the center body to the outer torus are configurations that have not been considered, but are possible feasible alternatives that can be readily explored with the methods envisioned. Development of a comprehensive beam based FE tool will facilitate the efficient exploration of the human-scale HIAD design space and will increase our understanding of the behavior of the low-TRL HIAD space technology. Major technological challenges associated with deployable aeroshells remain. In order to further the technology and ensure that the HIAD system will one day be capable of accommodating the requirements of a crewed mission to Mars, further investigations into the behavior of the system at the full-scale are required.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:48:46.000Z
<p>Frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. This technology project seeks to develop a prototype of a real-time location system integrated with a CO2 sensor to monitor and correlate space-time-CO2 concentration with physical symptoms and functional evaluations of impairment. The CO2 sensor will be integrated with a low-power ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system with location-tracking capability. Although the initial development is oriented to the measurement of CO2, the system concept can easily be adapted to accommodate other types of sensors. <p/><p>Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system will be developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, existing EV Modular Instrumentation System (MIS) Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) hardware will be leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In addition, potential for integration of this system with EV's Electronic-textile System for the Evaluation of Wearable Technology (E-SEWT) will be evaluated.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:16:09.000Z
This dataset provides profile-integrated column densities of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl (OH), and OH production rates, diel tropospheric mean OH concentrations, and uncertainties that were derived from direct observation data from selected profiles of NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission 1 and 2 flights for the period July 29, 2016 to February 21, 2017. These calculated products were combined with coincident HCHO column retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to scale and extend the profile results to a global gridded (0.5 deg latitude x 0.625 deg longitude) product. In addition to OMI formaldehyde column data, model output products from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) including average tropopause height, scaling factor, column air mass, and column-average formaldehyde photolysis frequency are provided. The GMI model output products were used in calculations and are included for user convenience.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T02:59:00.000Z
The first generation of U.S. photo intelligence satellites collected more than 860,000 images of the Earth’s surface between 1960 and 1972. The classified military satellite systems code-named CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD acquired photographic images from space and returned the film to Earth for processing and analysis. The images were originally used for reconnaissance and to produce maps for U.S. intelligence agencies. In 1992, an Environmental Task Force evaluated the application of early satellite data for environmental studies. Since the CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD data were no longer critical to national security and could be of historical value for global change research, the images were declassified by Executive Order 12951 in 1995. The first successful CORONA mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in 1960. The satellite acquired photographs with a telescopic camera system and loaded the exposed film into recovery capsules. The capsules or buckets were de-orbited and retrieved by aircraft while the capsules parachuted to earth. The exposed film was developed and the images were analyzed for a range of military applications. The intelligence community used Keyhole (KH) designators to describe system characteristics and accomplishments. The CORONA systems were designated KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, KH-4, KH-4A, and KH-4B. The ARGON systems used the designator KH-5 and the LANYARD systems used KH-6. Mission numbers were a means for indexing the imagery and associated collateral data. A variety of camera systems were used with the satellites. Early systems (KH-1, KH-2, KH-3, and KH-6) carried a single panoramic camera or a single frame camera (KH-5). The later systems (KH-4, KH-4A, and KH-4B) carried two panoramic cameras with a separation angle of 30° with one camera looking forward and the other looking aft. The original film and technical mission-related documents are maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Duplicate film sources held in the USGS EROS Center archive are used to produce digital copies of the imagery. Mathematical calculations based on camera operation and satellite path were used to approximate image coordinates. Since the accuracy of the coordinates varies according to the precision of information used for the derivation, users should inspect the preview image to verify that the area of interest is contained in the selected frame. Users should also note that the images have not been georeferenced.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:57:00.000Z
An inherently rugged Universal Oscillator (UO) is needed to enable a superior class of configurable communications for NASA applications. The requirements are a low phase noise RF output concurrently with a rugged, reliable, small, power efficient, and frequency tuning ability. VIDA Products has developed technology that will ultimately enable an integrated circuit YIG oscillator with high Q resonators and low power consumption that fills these requirements. The high Q YIG resonators are made possible by quantum electron spin precession and are essentially lossless. In general, a resonator is realized by a YIG sphere RF magnetic fields coupling to the oscillator circuit structure. A bias magnetic field on the spheres at a right angle to the coupling field vector sets the frequency of operation. It is a linear function of exactly 2.8 MHz per Gauss. Its equivalent electrical circuit is composed of circuit elements unrealizable by finite components that vary over frequency so the filter bandwidth does not change with tuned frequency. Thus the Q increases with frequency since a definition of Q is the tuned frequency divided by the bandwidth. For oscillators using these resonators the phase noise is excellent and continues to perform as the oscillation frequency increases. The Resonant Ring Oscillator topology is easily realizable using MMIC technology to reduce a YIG based oscillator to a single IC with the ability to produce external fields of the correct vectors and path losses. To make use of this phenomenon, a proprietary circuit utilizing leakage shielding and frequency locking will control the magnetic bias field and be integrated in the UO IC. The result will be a Universal Oscillator that can be produced to operate at any frequency between 3 and 30 GHz at cost equivalent to current VCO technology but with 30 to 40 dBc improvement in phase noise performance. Completing the development of this technology now will save immeasurable resources.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:19:15.000Z
Daily min, max, average temperature (F), precipitation (water equivalent in inches), and daily insolation (Langleys) for the Superior National Forest area as collected by NWS and U. of Minnesota