Transport, Chemistry, and Energetics of Water in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere and Implications for Polar Mesospheric Cloud Occurrencedata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:06:46.000Z
<p>The overall goal of this proposal is to study the time-dependent neutral chemistry and transport of water in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) and to determine the resultant impact on the local temperature and ice cloud formation. To reach this goal, we will answer three science questions: 1. What is the energetic and chemical response of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere to water deposited in the lower thermosphere? 2. How does the injection of large amounts of water vapor change the thermodynamics and impact the physics of PMC formation? 3. How is the water vapor that gets injected into the lower thermosphere, redistributed vertically to the PMC region near 82 km? To answer these questions we propose to release a plume of water vapor at high latitudes from a rocket payload and observe how the atmosphere responds both during and after the release. We will observe the evolution of the plume of water with lidar measurements from Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR). The lidar is capable of tracking both the optical emissions from the region and measuring the temperature profiles. In addition, an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) instrument will be deployed at PFRR to observe the upper mesosphere (~87 km) before and during the water release to provide quantitative information on any dynamics/wave activity and changes in mesospheric temperature. The combination of the lidar and mapping imager thus provides strong ground-based diagnostics for the launch. The launch will be at twilight so that any formation of PMCs from the plume will be visible from the ground. Trimethyl aluminum (TMA) trails will be released in addition to the water from a separate payload canister. The TMA is chemi-luminescent and can be tracked optically from the ground with cameras and the naked eye. The movement of the TMA trails will thus provide a direct indication of how the water is moving since both will be transported by the background winds. The TMA measurements will be helpful both for real-time waater cloud tracking and for post-flight analysis. Our ground-based observations will be supported by observations from the NASA TIMED and AIM missions and modeling result from the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM). We will interpret the observations of PMCs and temperature variations from the TIMED satellite that are driven by the plume chemistry with our TIMEGCM model. The TIMEGCM will be augmented to include all heating and cooling contributions from the plume water vapor, any resultant ice formation as well as vertical transport and heating of the ambient atmosphere by the ice. Model results will be compared with observed PMC data from AIM and corresponding TIMED/SABER temperatures to elucidate and understand the relationship between PMCs and bulk thermodynamics. Perceived significance: The proposed project deals with a science investigation that can be carried out with instruments flown on suborbital sounding rockets. It contributes to the science goal of “understanding the fundamental physical processes of the space environment” (2010 Science Plan for NASA SMD). The proposal is also relevant to the NASA Heliophysics Roadmap, including two out of three overarching objectives: (Open the Frontiers to Space Environment Prediction, and Understand the Nature of our Home in Space) and their associated Research Focus Areas. It also complements work performed under the NASA AIM and TIMED missions.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:37:22.000Z
Automation and autonomy technologies, such as automated planning software, are key elements in realizing the vision for space exploration. However, the major stumbling block to realizing the widespread use of automation tools for operations is capturing and maintaining the domain models -- the object types and subtypes, relationships among them and operational constraints -- needed to support such techniques. Our success in Phase 1 showed that it is possible for subject matter experts (SMEs) to author ISS model information to produce a consistent model useful for planning, scheduling and procedure execution. In this Phase 2 proposal we aim to fully develop the authoring and data integration portions of our design and to integrate the resulting models with our interactive planning aid for flight controllers. The benefits for NASA operations are that the resulting modeling framework will 1) make available a consistent domain model that need not be reproduced for each automation project, unify the often disparate sources of EVA and Core Systems information, provide for rapid update of ISS configuration information, thus allowing automation applications to provide results based on the most recent data, provide a consistent view of the domain so as to minimize error in authoring procedural data.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T02:53:42.000Z
ML2HNO3 is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for nitric acid derived from radiances measured by the 240 GHz radiometer at and below 10 hPa, and from the 190 GHz radiometer above 10 hPa. The data version is 3.3/3.4. Data coverage is from August 8, 2004 to June 30, 2015. Spatial coverage is near-global (-82 degrees to +82 degrees latitude), with each profile spaced 1.5 degrees or ~165 km along the orbit track (roughly 15 orbits per day). The recommended useful vertical range is from 215 to 1.47 hPa, and the vertical resolution is between about 3 and 5 km. Users of the ML2HNO3 data product should read section 3.11 of the EOS MLS Level 2 Version 3.3 and 3.4 Quality Document for more information. The data are stored in the version 5 EOS Hierarchical Data Format (HDF-EOS5), which is based on the version 5 Hierarchical Data Format, or HDF-5. Each file contains two swath objects (profile and column data), each with a set of data and geolocation fields, swath attributes, and metadata.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:12:53.000Z
The spaceflight experiment was carried out using male C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old at launch). Wild type mice (n=3) were launched by Space Shuttle Discovery and housed on the International Space Station (ISS) for 91 days. They returned to the Earth by Space Shuttle Atlantis. But only one mouse returned to the Earth alive. Whole brain was sampled from the mouse killed by inhalation of carbon dioxide at the Life Sciences Support Facility of Kennedy Space Center within 3-4 hours after landing. After the spaceflight experiment the on-ground experiment was also carried out at the Advanced Biotechnology Center in Genova Italy. A mouse with the same species sex and age was housed in mice drawer system (MDS) which was utilized for the spaceflight (SF) mice for 3 months as the ground control (GC). Another mouse was housed in normal vivarium cage as the laboratory control (LC). Amount of food and water supplementation and environmental conditions were simulated as the flight group. After 3 months brain was sampled from one mouse in group GC and LC respectively. Comprehensive analyses of gene expression were performed in the right brain. Total of 4,000 genes were analyzed. The expression levels of 60 genes significantly changed in response to SF compared with LC and/or GC. The 15 and 16 genes were up- (> 2 folds) and down-regulated (< 0.5 folds) respectively following SF vs. GC. The levels of 58 genes were significantly altered by housing in MDS in space and/or on the ground. Forty seven and 11 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated vs. LC. Twenty seven out of these genes responded to caging in MDS both in space and on the ground. Further 31 genes were influenced by housing in MDS on the Earth. Responses of the characteristics of brain to long-term gravitational unloading were investigated in mice.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T03:02:28.000Z
The U.S. Census Grids (Summary File 3), 1990: Metropolitan Statistical Areas data set contains grids of demographic and socioeconomic data from the year 1990 U.S. Census in ASCII and GeoTIFF formats for 50 metropolitan statistical areas with at least one million in population. The grids have a resolution of 7.5 arc-seconds (0.002075 decimal degrees), or approximately 250 square meters. The gridded variables are based on census block geography from Census 1990 TIGER/Line Files and census variables (population, households, and housing variables). This data set is produced by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN)
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T02:50:09.000Z
The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched on January 10 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. CATS will provide vertical profiles at three wavelengths, orbiting between ~230 and ~270 miles above the Earth's surface at a 51-degree inclination with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. For the first time, it will allow scientist to study diurnal (day-to-night) changes in cloud and aerosol effects from space by observing the same spot on Earth at different times each day. CATS Level 2 Layer data product containing geophysical parameters derived from Level 1 data, at 60m vertical and 5km horizontal resolution.
BeatMark Software to Reduce the Cost of X-Ray Mirror Fabrication by Optimization of Polishing and Metrology cycle, Phase IIdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:24:14.000Z
For X-Ray optics, polishing the mirrors is one of the most costly steps in the fabrication of the system. BeatMark software will significantly decrease the cost of X-Ray mirror production. BeatMark will allow for parametrization of surface metrology data, which will be used as feedback for polishing parameter optimization and metrology experiment planning. By providing the parametrized optical surface description, BeatMark will optimize the costly polishing-and metrology cycle and enable numerical simulation of the performance of new X-Ray mirrors performed by NASA. BeatMark will help fulfill the requirements for sophisticated and reliable information about the expected surface slope and height distributions of prospective X-Ray optics before the optics are fabricated. As we demonstrated in Phase I, an optical surface can be thought of as a stationary uniform stochastic process and modeled with optimal Invertible Time Invariant Filters (InTILF). It was further shown that the modeling of one-dimensional (1D) slope measurements allows highly confident fitting of the X-Ray mirror metrology data with a limited number of parameters and a 10-15% reduction of required length of metrology profiles. Theoretically, a reduction of 50% is possible. In Phase II, we will conduct field tests to assess what reduction in metrology is practical and implementable. With the parameters of the InTILF model developed in Phase I, the surface slope profile of optics with a new specification can be forecast reliably. BeatMark will also process 2-D metrology data and provide a polishing optimization method, based on analysis of the mirror quality response to the polishing parameters. Our Phase I studies indicated that the optimal InTILF modeling describes the mirror surfaces with very few filter parameters and high spectral accuracy.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:14:13.000Z
We developed a mouse model that captures radiation effects on host biology by transplanting unirradiated Trp53 null mammary tissue to sham or irradiated hosts. Gene expression profiles of tumors that arose in irradiated mice are distinct from those that arose in naive hosts. Host irradiation induces a metaprofile consisting of gene modules representing stem cells cell motility macrophages and autophagy. Human orthologs of the host irradiation metaprofile discriminated between radiation-preceded and sporadic human thyroid cancers. An irradiated host centroid was strongly associated with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. When applied to sporadic human breast cancers the irradiated host metaprofile strongly associated with basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer intrinsic subtypes. Comparing host irradiation in the context of TGFB levels showed that inflammation was robustly associated with claudin-low tumors. The association of the irradiated host metaprofiles with estrogen receptor negative status and claudin-low subtype suggests that host processes similar to those induced by radiation underlie sporadic cancers. Total RNA was extracted from mammary tumors derived from transplantations of non-irradiated p53null mammary fragments into irradiated hosts. We analyized a total of 32 p53null tumors from irradiated wild type mice: 9 from sham-irradiated hosts and 23 from irradiated hosts. We also analyzed 24 tumors from irradiated TGFb1 heterozygote hosts: 6 from sham-irradiated hosts and 18 from irradiated hosts.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T05:06:05.000Z
This data set contains raw comet 9P/Tempel 1 and calibration images acquired by the Deep Impact Impactor Targeting Sensor Visible CCD during the encounter phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the impactor spacecraft as well as for scientific investigations. These data were collected from 6 May to 4 July 2005. In this version 1.1 of the data set, the values for the INTEGRATION_DURATION keyword in the PDS data labels were corrected. This revised data set supersedes version 1.0.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:52:57.000Z
A Venus mission will require a vehicle for atmospheric exploration and to transport the samples from the Venus surface to the top of the atmosphere. For this purpose it is reasonable (due to the high density of the Venus atmosphere) to use inflatable balloons, which occupy minimal space in the folded position and possess buoyancy upon being inflated. The Venus atmosphere contains hot (up to 460oC) clouds of sulfuric acid. The only kinds of material for an inflatable to withstand such high temperatures are metals. A sequence of operations is proposed to build balloons of different shapes with diffusion bonding of stainless steels or other alloys, which are most resistant against hot 85% sulfuric acid. However, even these materials possess a many times greater corrosion rate than that satisfying the current topic requirements on the balloon life time and areal density. In order to provide the required corrosion resistance, the fully bonded balloon will be coated with a thin layer of gold or tantalum by a PVD process or with gold by electroplating so that the entire laminate would possess an areal density of below 1000 g/m3. Building a seamless bellows by PVD is a backup option.