- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:19:28.000Z
Aquarius Level 3 sea surface density standard mapped image data contains gridded 1 degree spatial resolution density data averaged over daily, 7 day, monthly, and seasonal time scales. This particular data set is the 28-Day running mean, Descending sea surface density product for version 5.0 of the Aquarius data set. Only retrieved values for Descending passes have been used to create this product. Surface density estimates are based on TEOS-10 and derived using retrieved salinity from Aquarius and collocated ancillary SST (Reynolds OI 0.25 degree product). The Aquarius instrument is onboard the AQUARIUS/SAC-D satellite, a collaborative effort between NASA and the Argentinian Space Agency Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument consists of three radiometers in push broom alignment at incidence angles of 29, 38, and 46 degrees incidence angles relative to the shadow side of the orbit. Footprints for the beams are: 76 km (along-track) x 94 km (cross-track), 84 km x 120 km and 96km x 156 km, yielding a total cross-track swath of 370 km. The radiometers measure brightness temperature at 1.413 GHz in their respective horizontal and vertical polarizations (TH and TV). A scatterometer operating at 1.26 GHz measures ocean backscatter in each footprint that is used for surface roughness corrections in the estimation of salinity. The scatterometer has an approximate 390km swath.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:19:27.000Z
Aquarius Level 3 sea surface density standard mapped image data contains gridded 1 degree spatial resolution density data averaged over daily, 7 day, monthly, and seasonal time scales. This particular data set is the Daily, Descending sea surface density product for version 5.0 of the Aquarius data set. Surface density estimates are based on TEOS-10 and derived using retrieved salinity from Aquarius and collocated ancillary SST (Reynolds OI 0.25 degree product). The Aquarius instrument is onboard the AQUARIUS/SAC-D satellite, a collaborative effort between NASA and the Argentinian Space Agency Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales (CONAE). The instrument consists of three radiometers in push broom alignment at incidence angles of 29, 38, and 46 degrees incidence angles relative to the shadow side of the orbit. Footprints for the beams are: 76 km (along-track) x 94 km (cross-track), 84 km x 120 km and 96km x 156 km, yielding a total cross-track swath of 370 km. The radiometers measure brightness temperature at 1.413 GHz in their respective horizontal and vertical polarizations (TH and TV). A scatterometer operating at 1.26 GHz measures ocean backscatter in each footprint that is used for surface roughness corrections in the estimation of salinity. The scatterometer has an approximate 390km swath.
GPM PR on TRMM Gridded Orbital Spectral Latent Heating Profiles L3 1.5 hours 0.5x0.5 degree V06 (GPM_3GSLH_TRMM) at GES DISCdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-29T15:19:49.000Z
This is the new (GPM-formated) TRMM product. It replaces the old TRMM_3G25 Version 06 is the current version of the data set. Older versions will no longer be available and have been superseded by Version 06. Estimating vertical profiles of latent heating released by precipitating cloud systems is one of the key objectives of TRMM, together with accurately measuring the horizontal distribution of tropical rainfall. The method uses TRMM PR information [precipitation-top height (PTH), precipitation rates at the surface and melting level, and rain type] to select heating profiles from lookup tables. Heating-profile lookup tables for the three rain types—convective, shallow stratiform, and anvil rain (deep stratiform with a melting level)—were derived from numerical simulations of tropical cloud systems from the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) utilizing a cloud-resolving model (CRM). The SLH algorithm is severely limited by the inherent sensitivity of the TRMM PR. For latent heating, the quantity required is actually cloud top, but the PR can detect only precipitation-sized particles. Because observed information on precipitation depth is used in addition to precipitation type and intensity, differences between shallow and deep convection are more distinct in the SLH algorithm in comparison with the CSH algorithm. The Gridded Orbital Spectral Latent Heating is actually one orbit gridded onto a global map with 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree grid cell size. These latent heating profiles from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) rain. The granule temporal size is one orbit.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:54:25.000Z
NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and low cost dielectric materials. T/J Technologies proposes to develop and demonstrate high energy density, fast-rise, and high reliability dielectric materials for these applications. The key element of our approach is the development and demonstration, in a breadboard configuration, the feasibility of a new high energy density polymeric dielectric film based on organic-inorganic nanocomposites with tailored structure and composition that will increase the dielectric constant and dielectric strength of the host polymer, polypropylene. This material will possess the high reliability, high dielectric constant, and high dielectric strength needed to develop energy storage devices such as capacitors that will meet or exceed the stored power system needs for the aforementioned applications. Future work of this proposed research, during phase II, will be mainly focused on developing all the associated technologies. The research will enable the development of high-energy electrical storage systems that is critical for NASA space mission as well as for tactical and strategic pulse power applications such as electric armor, particle beam accelerators, high power microwave sources and ballistic missile applications
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T16:51:12.000Z
The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) developed the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) to forecast the resources necessary to adequately treat an ill or injured crew member during ISS and exploration missions. The IMM project addresses the HRP Risk of the “Inability to Adequately Recognize or Treat an Ill or Injured Crewmember.” The HRP Gap associated with this risk is the “Lack of knowledge about incidence rates, probabilities and consequences relative to Loss of Crew and/or Loss of Mission (LOC/LOM) for the medical conditions on the Exploration Medical Condition List.” The medical condition being examined in this project is traumatic injury to the chest. The probability of occurrence was unknown and it needed to be quantified. This study is significant because should a traumatic chest injury occur during a spaceflight, the impact of occurrence is severe, including the potential for LOC/LOM. This study is important because it quantified the probability of a traumatic chest injury occurring during a space mission and the quantification will help to close the risk of being unable to treat an injured crewmember because of inadequate preparation. The chest injury probability calculation was broken down into four steps: 1) Definition of initiating events, impactor masses, and astronaut characteristics; 2) Calculation of an impact response using a biomechanical model of the thorax; 3) Definition of a relationship between the impact response and severity of injury and transformation of the relationship to a probability; 4) Definition of the rate of impact and transformation of the rate to a probability. A probabilistic modeling approach was taken to calculate the injury probability, so that the uncertainty in the prediction could be captured. Distributions of parameter values were used instead of single deterministic values to capture population and other types of variability. Monte Carlo simulations were performed rather than a single calculation, in order to predict the probability in terms of the most likely probability, the standard deviation, and a confidence interval. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to determine the parameters that contributed the most to the uncertainty of the prediction. The quantification of the probability of traumatic chest injury begins by defining the initiating event. For this medical event, the initiating event is an impact to the chest, which could occur accidentally as the astronauts move about and work on the ISS. Astronauts move about the ISS by pushing-off of the walls or fixed equipment and translating through the station. Their work often requires them to move equipment from one part of the station to another. Impact to the chest could occur accidentally while the attention of the astronaut is focused on something other than where they are translating and the equipment in their surroundings. An example scenario of how the initiating event (the impact) could occur is one astronaut translating with equipment too large to see around and another astronaut accidentally being impacted in the chest with the equipment, while translating with his attention focused elsewhere. The mass and velocity of the astronauts and ISS equipment are important parameters that were quantified in order to calculate whether or not the impact described in the above scenario results in an injury. Values for astronaut mass and translational velocity and of ISS equipment masses were obtained from NASA Standards and other NASA documents. During an impact to the chest there is a transfer of energy from the impactor to the chest of the astronaut. The energy associated with the impact is dependent on the mass and velocity of the impactor. The energy absorbed by the chest, and any damage that occurs, is dependent on the amount of energy needed to bring the impactor to rest. A massive impactor with a high velocity will contain a high amount of
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T03:01:58.000Z
ML2CH3CL is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl chloride derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The data version is 3.3/3.4. Data coverage is from August 8, 2004 to June 30, 2015. Spatial coverage is near-global (-82 degrees to +82 degrees latitude), with each profile spaced 1.5 degrees or ~165 km along the orbit track (roughly 15 orbits per day). The recommended useful vertical range is between 147 and 4.64 hPa, and the vertical resolution ranges between 4-6 km in the lower stratosphere and 8-10 km above 14 hPa. Users of the ML2CH3CL data product should read section 3.3 of the EOS MLS Level 2 Version 3.3 and 3.4 Quality Document for more information. The data are stored in the version 5 EOS Hierarchical Data Format (HDF-EOS5), which is based on the version 5 Hierarchical Data Format, or HDF-5. Each file contains one swath object (profile data), with a set of data and geolocation fields, swath attributes, and metadata.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-17T15:25:12.000Z
TES Level 2 data contain retrieved species (or temperature) profiles at the observation targets and the estimated errors. The geolocation, quality and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also provided. L2 modeled spectra are evaluated using radiative transfer modeling algorithms. The process, referred to as retrieval, compares observed spectra to the modeled spectra and iteratively updates the atmospheric parameters. L2 standard product files include information for one molecular species (or temperature) for an entire global survey or special observation run. A global survey consists of a maximum of 16 consecutive orbits. A Nadir sequence within the TES Global Survey is a fixed number of observations within an orbit for a Global Survey. Prior to April 24, 2005, it consisted of two low resolution scans over the same ground locations. After April 24, 2005, Global Survey data consisted of three low resolution scans. The Nadir standard product consists of four files, where each file is composed of the Global Survey Nadir observations from one of four focal planes for a single orbit, i.e. 72 orbit sequences. The Global Survey Nadir observations currently only use a single set of filter mix. A Global Survey consists of observations along 16 consecutive orbits at the start of a two day cycle, over which 3,200 retrievals are performed. Each observation is the input for retrievals of species Volume Mixing Ratios (VMR), temperature profiles, surface temperature and other data parameters with associated pressure levels, precision, total error, vertical resolution, total column density and other diagnostic quantities. Each TES Level 2 standard product reports information in a swath format conforming to the HDF-EOS Aura File Format Guidelines. Each Swath object is bounded by the number of observations in a global survey and a predefined set of pressure levels representing slices through the atmosphere. Each standard product can have a variable number of observations depending upon the Global Survey configuration and whether averaging is employed. Also, missing or bad retrievals are not reported. The organization of data within the Swath object is based on a superset of the UARS pressure levels used to report concentrations of trace atmospheric gases. The reporting grid is the same pressure grid used for modeling. There are 67 reporting levels from 1211.53 hPa, which allows for very high surface pressure conditions, to 0.1 hPa, about 65 km. In addition, the products will report values directly at the surface when possible or at the observed cloud top level. Thus in the Standard Product files each observation can potentially contain estimates for the concentration of a particular molecule at 67 different pressure levels within the atmosphere. However, for most retrieved profiles, the highest pressure levels are not observed due to a surface at lower pressure or cloud obscuration. For pressure levels corresponding to altitudes below the cloud top or surface, where measurements were not possible, a fill value will be applied. Details of the format of this product can be found in the TES Data Products Specifications (DPS) which is available from the LaRC ASDC site: https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/tes/DPS To minimize the duplication of information between the individual species standard products, data fields common to each species (such as spacecraft coordinates, emissivities, and other data fields) have been collected into a separate standard product, termed the TES L2 Ancillary Data product (ESDT short name: TL2ANC). Users of this product should also obtain the Ancillary Data product.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-07-01T15:16:03.000Z
This biomass density image covers almost the entire BOREAS SSA. The pixels for which biomass density is computed include areas that are in conifer land cover classes only. The biomass density values represent the amount of overstory biomass (i.e., tree biomass only) per unit area. It is derived from a Landsat-5 TM image collected on 02-Sep-1994. The technique that was used to create this image is very similar to the technique that was used to create the physical classification of the SSA.
Graded Density Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber (CBCF) Preforms for Lightweight Ablative Thermal Protection Systems (TPS), Phase IIdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:12:37.000Z
FMI has developed graded density CBCF preforms for graded density phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) material to meet NASA's future exploration mission requirements for higher performance ablative TPS. Graded Preform PICA (GPP) will be achieved by the continued development of lightweight, graded density carbon preforms which will decrease the overall areal mass of the resulting TPS material while enhancing its thermal performance capability. The preform material designed to achieve this goal is comprised of a more mechanically robust, ablating outer layer and a lower weight, lower thermal conductivity inner layer than state-of-the-art PICA material. The ablative outer layer and thermal inner layer will be integrated in a continuously cast, monolithic material with equivalent capability for resin impregnation and conversion to PICA as the baseline existing preform material (FiberForm®). During the proposed Phase II program, FMI will continue to develop its capability to produce graded density preform material to achieve TPS areal mass reductions estimated between 17-25% relative to PICA with the goal of improving ablation performance. The developed preform materials will be converted to GPP and then characterized mechanically, thermally, and tested for ablation performance. In addition to providing a pathway for these enhancements to tile acreage PICA TPS ablator material, FMI will incorporate the developed processing methodology to produce near net-shaped cast PICA TPS material preforms with a reduced density gradient compared to baseline manufacturing techniques.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:06:13.000Z
<p>We propose to use laboratory measurements to calibrate spectroscopic electron density diagnostics relevant for solar physics to accuracies of better than 20%. Our results will be directly applicable to solar spectroscopy and can also be used to test theoretical calculations. Improving the accuracy of density diagnostics will increase the scientific return of current and planned solar missions such as Hinode, SDO, Solar Orbiter, Solar-C, and sounding rocket observations such as EUNIS. This work will address the Laboratory Nuclear, Atomic, and Plasma Physics element of the Heliophysics Technology and Instrument Development for Science program. Density is a key parameter for solar physics. It is used to determine the energy and force balance in various solar regions and to understand the nature of solar structures. Among the numerous areas in which accurate density measurements are needed are coronal heating, coronal seismology, coronal mass ejections, solar flares, and understanding the nature of inhomogeneous structures in the solar atmosphere. The primary density diagnostics for solar plasmas use ratios of emission line intensities, at least one of which is density sensitive. This sensitivity arises due to the atomic physics of the system. It depends on the collisional excitation and deexcitation rates and radiative transition rates for the several atomic levels directly involved in the transition, as well as cascade contributions from many higher energy levels. Essentially all of these data comes from theoretical calculations, which have not been adequately tested. The theoretical results are usually compared to other calculations or to observed solar spectra, neither of which independently tests the theory. Moreover, the calculations rarely provide any uncertainty estimates and large systematic errors are possible depending on the complexity of the atomic model used. A recent comparison of several diagnostic line ratios showed discrepancies in the inferred density of factors of 2 to 10. This implies that observations are unable to accurately interpret spectra in order to describe solar structures, which severely limits our ability to model the underlying physics. Our measurements will reduce the uncertainty of density diagnostics by an order of magnitude. We will calibrate density sensitive line intensity ratios using the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. EBIT is a cylindrical trap, in which an axial magnetic field guides an electron beam running along the axis. The electron beam forms an electric potential well that confines the ions in the radial direction, while biased electrodes at each end provide axial confinement. Collisions between the ions and the electron beam ionize and excite the trapped ions. By adjusting the electron beam parameters we can vary the density in the trap and measure how the various line intensity ratios change. The ion emission line spectra will be measured using high resolution ultraviolet spectrometers. The electron beam density will be derived from the electron current and X-ray or extreme ultraviolet images of the beam. The effective density experienced by the ions depends on the overlap of the ion cloud with the electron beam. To determine the overlap, the geometry of the ion cloud will be measured using an optical CCD. The resulting effective electron density will range from 1E8 to 1E13 cm-3. We will also compare our results to new theoretical calculations and to published atomic data in order to identify the underlying causes of any discrepancies we find. We will concentrate on ions most relevant for solar physics. For example, we will measure diagnostics from Fe IX - XIII found in the 170-210 Angstrom wavelength band, as these lines and wavelengths are observed by various solar spectrometers. We will also measure diagnostic line ratios from other ions and wavelengths that are important for specific instruments.</p>