- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:07:19.000Z
This is the Northern Kentucky University Co-I proposal to request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for ~161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its system-level qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multi-TeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The ISS-CREAM launch is currently manifested on SpaceX-12, which is scheduled for April 2017. It is expected to accumulate a total of > 4.5 years exposure during the grant period. The study of cosmic accelerators supports the Science Mission Directorate's Goal for Astrophysics in NASA's 2010 Science Plan, "Discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and evolved, and search for Earth-like planets." It specifically addresses the Science Question, "How do matter, energy, space and time behave under the extraordinarily diverse conditions of the cosmos?"
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-20T07:11:25.000Z
The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science, cognition, and Human-Centered Computing, brings all cockpit information required for flight together into a single, unified display that uses a common frame of reference employing both the focal and ambient channels of human visual processing. This proposal addresses Topic A1.05 Crew Systems Technologies for Improved Aviation Safety. It specifically addresses the goals of ensuring appropriate situation awareness and facilitating and extending human perception, information interpretation, and response planning and selection. Its primary focus is in the SBIR topical areas of interest in Data fusion technologies for real-time integration and integrity checking of single source information streams of varying spatial and temporal resolution; and Human-centered technologies to improve the access and performance of less-experienced operators and pilots from special population groups. Previous experimentation has shown that OZ provides significantly better performance for pilots than conventional flight instrumentation. The proposal will test the feasibility of using OZ to provide situational awareness superior to that provided by both conventional instrumentation and commercially available electronic primary flight displays. Phase I will show that OZ is also superior to existing electronic primary flight displays that display conventional flight instrumentation on an electronic display and will develop and demonstrate a prototype OZ system in a general aviation aircraft. In Phase II the prototype system will be flight tested against competing electronic flight information systems and a DO-178B compliant OZ system will be developed and flight tested to determine its suitability for FAA certification for general aviation aircraft.
Nanotube Adsorption for the Capture and Re-liquefaction of Hydrogen Biol-Off During Tanker Transfer Operations, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T16:06:05.000Z
This proposal discloses an innovative, economically feasible technique to capture and re-liquefy the hydrogen boil-off by using carbon nanotube adsorption prior to liquefaction. The hydrogen boil- off involves an average of 10,300 SCFM of hydrogen vapor at pressures below 17 psia for a period of an hour. The configuration disclosed in the proposal significantly reduces the size of the liquefaction equipment and this translates into a substantial reduction in cost for the system. Preliminary calculations have indicated that a payback period of less than 12 months (based on the current cost of hydrogen and the use rate at KSC when shuttles return to flight). The Phase I effort will also experimentally demonstrate the performance of a carbon nanotube coated (CNC) adsorption bed in Phase I. This proposal discloses a patent-pending approach which makes this technology feasible, safe and affordable. The Phase I effort is significant, in that an extensive demonstration of the performance, cost, durability, and simplicity of the CNC adsorption bed as well as a demonstration of the economic benefits of the hydrogen capture system for NASA/KSC will both be achieved before proceeding to Phase II.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:14:04.000Z
As the consumer and industrial requirements for compact, high-power-density, electrical power systems grow substantially over the next decade; there will be a significant need for novel electrode/electrolyte materials for high-power/energy-density capacitors. To meet the strong market demand for miniaturization and higher capacitance/voltage values in a given case size, new and advanced technologies must be developed and implemented. This proposal addresses the development of an all-solid, high-energy-density, high-power-density, high-voltage capacitor, with substantially reduced Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) and cost. The proposed capacitor combines the advantages of operating voltage associated with certain metal-oxide electrolytic capacitors with some special features of metal-oxide pseudocapacitor material. Compared to the standard solid electrolytic capacitor, the proposed capacitor design will have a higher capacitance and lower resistance, yielding a low-cost, low-ESR device with a simplified packaging process. During Phase I prototype capacitor units will be fabricated and characterized to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach. These units will be evaluated and compared to standard capacitors to evaluate the overall benefit of the hybrid capacitors and success in demonstrating concept feasibility.
Development of a new time of flight particle telescope for ion mass composition of solar energetic particlesdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:43:57.000Z
Scientists and engineers from The Aerospace Corporation propose to develop a new time of flight by energy mass spectrometer using a new technology: carbon solid state detectors (diamond detectors). The proposed research project will further test a new instrument concept using diamond detectors in a time of flight by energy mass spectrometer. Diamond detectors are a relatively new technology, and they have many benefits over the standard silicon and germanium solid state detectors. Diamond detectors have significantly higher radiation tolerance compared to silicon and germanium detectors, and critical to this proposed project, diamond detectors have much faster response times, on the order of 10 ps (1e-11 seconds). When combined with commercially available ultra-fast preamplifiers and electronics, we have already demonstrated in the lab that two of these detectors can be used to measure the time of flight and energy deposit of >10 MeV heavy ions over a detector separation distance of < 10 cm. Those lab tests served as a proof-of-concept of the successful functionality of the critical components of the new instrument, which raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of this concept to TRL-3. We are proposing to continue development of this new instrument concept and design and develop a prototype instrument that will be tested in a relevant lab environment, raising the TRL to TRL-6. If successful, the proposed development will render this instrument ready for inclusion on proposed missions of opportunity. The prototype instrument will be designed with efficiency in mind, with our goal being an instrument with size, weight, and power specifications that will allow it to be flight-tested on a future CubeSat mission. The instrument design will benefit from Aerospace’s decades-long participation and leadership in energetic particle telescope design; it will incorporate the state-of-the-art electronics and materials technology that Aerospace has developed over its well-established history developing instruments for energetic particle detection. Furthermore, we will take full advantage of Aerospace’s long-standing partnership with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 88-inch cyclotron facility, where we will test the performance of the instrument at discriminating the mass and measuring the energy of a cocktail of different >10 MeV ions (including protons). This project has the potential to provide an entirely new type of instrument for the detection and very high energy ions, providing a very accurate measure of the incident ion energy as well as discriminating the mass of the ions, enabling ion composition studies of energetic populations such as solar energetic particles (SEPs), trapped radiation in planetary magnetospheres, and potentially even anomalous cosmic rays. The proposed project also tests a new technology, diamond detectors, and broadens our understanding of the potential uses for this technology in the process.
Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:34.000Z
TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and bone loss and to improve the overall wellness of astronauts operating in microgravity. The DART will be able to provide resistive loads up to 350 lbf and will accurately simulate the load profile of a mass in a 1-g environment. It will also be capable of applying custom load profiles such as eccentric overloading. In aerobic training mode, the DART will simulate the loads of a rowing machine with loads up to 175. The system will computer-controlled and can automatically calibrate to a user's range of motion. The total weight of the device will be less than 20 lbs and have a compact form factor to enable integration into a small crew module. By using a regenerative energy recovery system, the average power consumption of the DART will be less than 100 W during an exercise session. TDA is able to build on previous experience building exercise equipment for NASA and develop the DART in a short timeframe. TDA will prove the feasibility of providing effective aerobic and resistive training with a single device that is lightweight and compact in Phase I. At the end of Phase I a prototype will be delivered to NASA for evaluation. In Phase II we will advance the technology and provide the second generation prototype to NASA for testing on the International Space Station.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:47:02.000Z
The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the suitability of artificial single-crystal diamond detectors (SCDDs) for use as the scattering medium in Compton telescopes for medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy. SCDDs offer the possibility of position and energy resolution comparable to those of silicon solid-state detectors (SSDs), combined with efficiency and timing resolution so-far only achievable using fast scintillators. When integrated with a calorimeter composed of fast inorganic scintillator, such as CeBr3, read out by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), SCDDs will enable a compact and efficient Compton telescope using time-of-flight (ToF) discrimination to achieve low background and high sensitivity. This detector development project will be a collaboration between the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The proposed work represents an innovative combination of detector technologies originally conceived separately for high-energy astronomy (fast scintillators read out by SiPMs; UNH) and space plasma/particle physics (SCDDs; SwRI). Recently SwRI has demonstrated that SCDDs fabricated using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) show good energy resolution (~7 keV FWHM), comparable to silicon SSDs, with much faster time response (~ns rise time) due to higher electron/hole mobilities. They are also temperature- and light-insensitive, and radiation hard. In addition, diamond is low-Z, composed entirely of carbon, but relatively high-density (3.5 g cm-3) compared to silicon or organic scintillator. SCDDs are therefore an intriguing possibility for a new Compton scattering element: if patterned with ~mm-sized readout electrodes and combined with a fast inorganic scintillator calorimeter, SCDDs could enable a compact but efficient Compton telescope with superior angular and energy resolution, while maintaining ToF background rejection. Such an instrument offers the exciting potential for unprecedented sensitivity, especially at energies < 1 - 2 MeV, on a small-scale mission utilizing recently available SmallSat buses (payload mass <100 kg). We propose to demonstrate this by constructing and testing a small proof-of-concept prototype and, based on its performance, using Monte Carlo simulations to explore the possibilities of furthering MeV science using relatively small-scale space missions.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:48:46.000Z
<p>Frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. This technology project seeks to develop a prototype of a real-time location system integrated with a CO2 sensor to monitor and correlate space-time-CO2 concentration with physical symptoms and functional evaluations of impairment. The CO2 sensor will be integrated with a low-power ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system with location-tracking capability. Although the initial development is oriented to the measurement of CO2, the system concept can easily be adapted to accommodate other types of sensors. <p/><p>Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system will be developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, existing EV Modular Instrumentation System (MIS) Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) hardware will be leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In addition, potential for integration of this system with EV's Electronic-textile System for the Evaluation of Wearable Technology (E-SEWT) will be evaluated.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:31:35.000Z
<p>WRANGLER will accomplish these functions by combining two innovative technologies that have been developed by TUI: the GRASP deployable net capture device, and the SpinCASTER tether deployer/winch mechanism. Successful testing of both technologies in a microgravity environment has established these technology components at mid-TRL maturity. The leverage offered by using a tether to extract angular momentum from a rotating space object enables a very small nanosatellite system to de-spin a very massive asteroid or large spacecraft. The WRANGLER system is suitable for an incremental development program that will validate the technology through an affordable test flight in which a nanosatellite launched on a rideshare opportunity would capture and de-spin the upper state used to launch it.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T05:26:06.000Z
This dataset contains calibrated images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 acquired by the Impactor Targeting Sensor Visible CCD (ITS) after the impactor was released from the flyby spacecraft on 03 July 2005 during the Deep Impact mission. Version 3.0 was calibrated by the EPOXI mission pipeline and includes corrected observation times with a maximum difference of about 40 milliseconds, a change to decompress the camera's zero-DN lookup table entry to the top of its range and flag the affected pixels as saturated, and the replacement of the I-over-F data products by multiplicative constants for converting radiance products to I-over-F.