- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T10:53:04.000Z
<p>The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft interior outfitting components. Examples of inflatable IVA structures that can be assembled include crew quarters, waste & hygiene compartment, crew medical restraint system, splints, science payload racks, stowage and other equipment racks, science glove box, recreational devices, other portable devices, work surfaces and other workstations, support braces, other secondary structures, etc. This inflatable technology can enable such hardware to be packaged in much smaller volumes for delivery in logistics flights or potentially to be integrated within inflatable spacecraft, increasing trade space options. Crew can also reconfigure spacecraft in-flight, using the ability to 3D-print custom connectors to redesign living spaces or create entirely new interior architectures to respond to mission developments or psychosocial needs.</p> <p>The Habitabiltiy Design Center has already prototyped scale models of inflatable crew stations and initial prototypes of a standard interface connector. These connectors have demonstrated basic capability, but are too large relative to the airbeams for pracitcal use. We have a notional reduced size connector and will use this concept as a starting point, to fabricate and test under operational inflation pressures. Pending initial success, we will fabricate various connectors to provide several linear and angled connections. This will form the basic building block for assembly of a variety of crew stations and support hardware.</p><p> </p><p>This research addresses HAT Needs Numbers 12.1.a and 12.1.b and provides steps towards several HAT-specified performance targets: Bladder Material Selection: The potentially frequent cycles of inflation and deflation experienced by IVA inflatable structures will require bladder material and seal interfaces capable of resisting puncture, tear, flex cracking, or other damage due to folding, handling, or stowage temperatures. Predictive Modeling of Deployment Dynamics: Inflation or deflation may involve imparted torques and loads that require IVA inflatable structures to be anchored to the spacecraft secondary structure prior to the initiation of inflation or deflation. Lightweight Structures and Materials Optimization to Realize Structural System Dry Mass Savings (Minimum of 20-25%) and Operational Cost Savings: The inflatable air beam and connector technology offers significant dry mass savings over traditional IVA structural materials. Structural mass savings for an individual crew quarters is expected to be in excess of 75% over ISS crew quarters.</p><p> </p><p>The intended product deliverable of this activity includes three airbeams of at least 12-inch length and no less than one each of the following: 90-degree connector, 45-degree connector, 180-degree connector, 90-degree five-airbeam connector, 60-degree three-airbeam connector. Additionally, a test report and CAD models for each connector will constitute deliverables of this activity.</p><p> </p><p>Upon completion of this initial ICA effort, we will be able to demonstrate use of the airbeams in conjunction with existing Logistics to Living Modified Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTBs) to demonstrate deployable partitions as an initial example case. This demonistration will be helpful in explaining the potential for continued investment to reduce both mass and habitability risks. We will continue to pursue research funding for further development and will also pursue options to directly engage exploration programs to generate solutions for their specific mission architectures.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:54:02.000Z
Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most technology in this area has focused on methods for detecting and identifying land cover or surface object changes in two or more images, but precise co-registration of images remains a key challenge. In fact, image-to-image registration and image-based change detection are intricately related, as the success of conducting both relies on the precision of the other; software that supports these functions should do so in an integrative manner. Image registration is the key factor influencing the success of detecting land cover changes at or near pixel scale. We will develop tools in the form of a "software development kit" (SDK) specifically optimized for precise co-registration of two or more images with minimal user interaction, with the primary motivation to enable change detection algorithms to focus on salient changes rather than highlight image registration errors. The SDK will be available to NASA at no cost, after which we will build user applications based on the SDK for commercial offering.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:44:42.000Z
Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is an innovative new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. The approach with MVP, rather than using exotic propellants to achieve maximum specific impulse and system performance, is to use an inexpensive, inert, solid propellant. This enables the use of a propulsion system on lower budget missions by lowering the unit cost (no valves or pressure vessels), and minimizes range safety expenses. By using a commercially available, space rated polymer as propellant, MVP overcomes potential issues associated with liquid propellants such as freezing, over-pressurization, degradation (of tank wall and/or propellant itself), and cg perturbations due to sloshing. As a result, MVP's standalone risk to the primary payload is no greater than that of a CubeSat not equipped with propulsion. MVP harnesses technology used in 3D printing applications to feed propellant into proven electrothermal propulsion technology developed by CU Aerospace. To date, MVP has demonstrated a continuous 105 seconds specific impulse with 20 W input power, with 107 seconds peak. Phase II performance is expected to exceed 130 seconds. This should provide 900 N-s total impulse with a 1U (10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) system, attributable to the high storage density and permissible thin walled construction. A 4 kg, 3U CubeSat equipped with MVP could achieve 250 m/s Delta-V while expending less than 25 W during operation. CU Aerospace will design, fabricate, and deliver a 1U MVP system to NASA at the end of the Phase II program.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T05:00:51.000Z
NASA's International Halley Watch (IHW) has created a Comet Halley Archive. The collection of data spans the full wavelength range as submitted by scientists to the IHW. The observations belong to one of the following Disciplines: Amateur, Astrometry, Infrared Studies, Large-Scale Phenomena, Meteor Studies, Near-Nucleus Studies, Photometry and Polarimetry, Radio Studies, and Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry. The data collected by these nine disciplines were augmented by Spacecraft measurements. The data were submitted to IHW, but the evaluation and selection for the Archive has been the primary responsibility of the Discipline Specialist Teams for each network in cooperation with the Lead Center. The data from the Infrared Spectroscopy subnetwork contains 75 spectra of Halley and 9 data used for calibration. The calibration spectra had as targets stars (HYA 106, BETA LEP) and a planet (MARS). The data covers dates from 1985 October 29 through 1986 May 24.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:03.000Z
This proposal addresses the need for miniature, narrow-linewidth, deep UV optical sources that operate at very low ambient temperatures for use in advanced in situ planetary science instruments for non-contact detection and classification of trace amounts of organic, inorganic, and biogenic materials using Raman and native fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The sources include aluminum gallium nitride semiconductor lasers and ultra-narrow-linewidth transverse excited hollow cathode lasers emitting between 210 nm to 250 nm, a spectral range with demonstrated higher detection sensitivity and specificity than sources emitting at longer wavelengths. Applications include non-contact robot-arm or body mounted chemical imaging instruments and detectors for direct analysis of trace levels of chemical species containing C, N, H, O, S, Cl, on surfaces or as extractions from soil, rock, or ice. We have achieved the highest recorded deep UV semiconductor internal quantum efficiencies at wavelengths below 250 nm. But continuing difficulties of attaining laser emission and prospects for narrow line-width compatible with Raman applications has caused us to redirect a significant portion of the Phase II effort to another class of deep UV laser with a more proven UV Raman track record and the potential for miniaturization for robot-arm-mounted applications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-18T20:31:57.000Z
<p> Develop a service-oriented hazard/disaster monitoring data system enabling both science and decision-support communities to monitor ground motion in areas of interest with InSAR and GPS.<br /> Enable high-volume and low-latency automatic generation of NASA Solid Earth science data products (InSAR and GPS) to support hazards monitoring.<br /> Enable improved understanding through visualization, mining, and cross-agency sharing of results.<br /> Enable interoperable discovery, access, and sharing of derived actionable products for hazards monitoring.<br /> &nbsp;</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:57:15.000Z
Tethers Unlimited, Inc. (TUI) proposes to develop the Metal Advanced Manufacturing Bot-Assisted Assembly (MAMBA) Process, a robotically managed metal press and milling system used to create precision parts on orbit. This manufacturing process provides an alternative to 3D printing metals in space, which is difficult due to space environment or print quality issues. Instead, the MAMBA-Process relies on an ingot forming technology to create a metal ingot. This ingot can then be milled and machined to form a precision part using a standard CNC milling technique. In order to minimize astronaut time and exposure to the process, the MAMBA-Process will be outfitted with a robotic assistant, using robotic assistance to remove the ingot from the press, to place the ingot in the mill, and to perform tool changes on the mill. The MAMBA effort will also develop a novel process for management and recycling of metal chips in a microgravity environment. Testing of the process technologies will lead to a lab demonstration of ingot formation and milling in the Phase I effort, maturing the MAMBA Process to TRL-3. In the Phase II effort, a full scale engineering unit will be built and tested to begin validating this technology for flight.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:53:08.000Z
We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be hybrid systems capable of acquiring surface and subsurface regolith as well as pulverized rocks (i.e. cuttings) from depth (the exact depth will be driven by the science requirement). The drill and the trencher unique sample delivery system will be able to transfer samples as they are being acquired, directly into the science instruments. Hence, these systems could be a single deployment system – it will have to drill/cut down once to deliver samples, and never retract. If the Venus Drill and/or Trencher will be deployed from a robotic arm, the system could be used multiple times. If the Venus Drill or the Trencher will be body mounted or mounted to a single degree of freedom system (spring deployable single action arm), it would be deployed once. Depending on the deployment requirements, the Drill and the Trencher could require just one actuator, while the remaining degrees of freedom (lowering the system to the ground and/or deploying the system some distance from the lander) could be achieved by a set of springs and hinges.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-18T20:03:00.000Z
<p> We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and measure their chemical composition. Simultaneous theoretical studies will be used to derive the expected&nbsp; mass and velocity ranges of these putative particles to formulate science and measurement requirements for the future deployment of&nbsp; the proposed Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA)&nbsp;</p> <p> Early dust instruments onboard Pioneer 8 and 9 and Helios spacecraft detected a flow of submicron sized dust particles coming from the direction of the Sun. These particles originate in the inner solar system from mutual collisions among meteoroids and move on&nbsp; hyperbolic orbits that leave the Solar System under the prevailing radiation pressure force. Later dust instruments with higher&nbsp; sensitivity had to avoid looking toward the Sun because of interference from the solar wind and UV radiation and thus contributed&nbsp; little to the characterization of the dust stream. The one exception is the Ulysses dust detector that observed escaping dust particles&nbsp; high above the solar poles, which confirm the suspicion that charged nanometer sized dust grains are carried to high heliographic&nbsp; latitudes by electromagnetic interactions with the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Recently, the STEREO WAVES instruments&nbsp; recorded a large number of intense electric field signals, which were interpreted as impacts from nanometer sized particles striking the&nbsp; spacecraft with velocities of about the solar wind speed. This high flux and strong spatial and/or temporal variations of nanometer&nbsp; sized dust grains at low latitude appears to be uncorrelated with the solar wind properties. This is a mystery as it would require that&nbsp; the total collisional meteoroid debris inside 1 AU is cast in nanometer sized fragments. The observed fluxes of inner-source pickup ions&nbsp; also point to the existence of a much enhanced dust population in the nanometer size range.&nbsp;</p> <p> This new heliospherical phenomenon of nano-dust streams may have consequences throughout the planetary system, but as of yet no dust instrument exists that could be used to shed light on their properties. &nbsp;We propose to develop a dust analyzer capable to detect and&nbsp; analyze these mysterious dust particles coming from the solar direction and to embark upon complementary theoretical studies to&nbsp; understand their characteristics. The instrument is based on the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) that has analyzed the composition of&nbsp; nanometer sized dust particles emanating from the Jovian and Saturnian systems but could not be pointed towards the Sun. By&nbsp; applying technologies implemented in solar wind instruments and coronagraphs a highly sensitive dust analyzer will be developed and&nbsp; tested in the laboratory. The dust analyzer shall be able to characterize impact properties (impact charge and energy distribution of&nbsp; ions from which mass and speed of the impacting grains may be derived) and chemical composition of individual nanometer sized&nbsp; particles while exposed to solar wind and UV radiation. The measurements will enable us to identify the source of the dust by&nbsp; comparing their elemental composition with that of larger micrometeoroid particles of cometary and asteroid origin and will reveal&nbsp; interaction of nano-dust with the interplanetary medium by investigating the relation of the dust flux with solar wind and IMF&nbsp; properties.&nbsp;</p> <p> Complementary theoretically studies will be performed to understand the characteristics of nano-dust particles at 1 AU to answer the&nbsp; following questions:&nbsp; - What is the speed range at which nanometer sized particles impact
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T17:47:39.000Z
UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN, MATTHEW COLLIER, RODGER A. BROWN, JEFFREY BASARA, AND JOHN K. WILLIAMS Abstract. Major severe weather events can cause a significant loss of life and property. We seek to revolutionize our understanding of and ability to predict such events through the mining of severe weather data. Because weather is inherently a spatiotemporal phenomenon, mining such data requires a model capable of representing and reasoning about complex spatiotemporal dynamics, including temporally and spatially varying attributes and relationships. We introduce an augmented version of the Spatiotemporal Relational Random Forest, which is a Random Forest that learns with spatiotemporally varying relational data. Our algorithm maintains the strength and performance of Random Forests but extends their applicability, including the estimation of variable importance, to complex spatiotemporal relational domains. We apply the augmented Spatiotemporal Relational Random Forest to three severe weather data sets. These are: predicting atmospheric turbulence across the continental United States, examining the formation of tornadoes near strong frontal boundaries, and understanding the translation of drought across the southern plains of the United States. The results on such a wide variety of real-world domains demonstrate the extensive applicability of the Spatiotemporal Relational Random Forest. Our long-term goal is to significantly improve the ability to predict and warn about severe weather events.