- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:54:02.000Z
Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most technology in this area has focused on methods for detecting and identifying land cover or surface object changes in two or more images, but precise co-registration of images remains a key challenge. In fact, image-to-image registration and image-based change detection are intricately related, as the success of conducting both relies on the precision of the other; software that supports these functions should do so in an integrative manner. Image registration is the key factor influencing the success of detecting land cover changes at or near pixel scale. We will develop tools in the form of a "software development kit" (SDK) specifically optimized for precise co-registration of two or more images with minimal user interaction, with the primary motivation to enable change detection algorithms to focus on salient changes rather than highlight image registration errors. The SDK will be available to NASA at no cost, after which we will build user applications based on the SDK for commercial offering.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:33:32.000Z
Silicone coatings are the system of choice for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters. Commercial silicone coatings with improved mechanical, thermal and physical gas barrier properties are needed for a broad range of space, military, and commercial applications. The phase I program has demonstrated that addition of small amounts of nanostructured additives enhances tear strength, tensile strength, and hardness without significantly degrading other important properties, thermal stability, puncture resistance and air permeability of commercial silicone coatings. It was also shown that properties of coatings are strongly correlated with the chemistry and composition of nanostructured additives. The significance of the Phase I innovation is that commercially used coating formulations were utilized as the starting material, making it easier to be adopted in practice. Success in Phase I has enabled us to put together a strong Phase II team, composed of commercial silicone coating applicators, an airbag assembly developer, and a large supplier of silicone coating formulation. The focus of the Phase II program will be to develop nanostructured additives for several different types of commercial silicone coatings to meet their specific application needs. Additionally, nanostructured additive technology will be scaled up, and prototype airbags will be fabricated.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T22:12:38.000Z
Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory propose Self-assembling, Wireless, Autonomous, Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) as an innovative approach to modular fabrication and in-space robotic assembly of large scale systems. Fabrication of modular components yields fabrication savings associated with large production volume and automated integration and test. In-space assembly permits staged deployment on an as-needed, as-afforded basis. It also decouples stowed launch geometry from deployed operational geometry. The SWARM concept uses formation flown spacecraft, containing multiple universal docking ports, to dock with modular elements and maneuver them to dock with other, similar elements. In the process, systems can be assembled that are much larger than what can be fit or folded into a launch vehicle fairing, or what can be launched on a single vehicle. Furthermore, such modularity will allow jettison of failed components, upgrade of obsolete technology, and amortization of design costs across multiple missions. In Phase I, we demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for a simplified telescope assembly on the flat-floor at MSFC. In Phase II, we will develop the hardware and software elements necessary to demonstrate, on a flat-floor, the modular assembly and reconfiguration of systems representative of trans-planetary spacecraft and large telescope assembly.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:28:26.000Z
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has the potential to create deformable mirrors (DM) with more than 10^4 actuators that have size, weight, and power specifications that are far lower than conventional piezoelectric and electrostrictive DMs. However, considerable development is necessary to take state-of-the-art DMs today and make them flight-like. This Phase I SBIR proposal addresses two critical areas in MEMS DM development towards the goal of developing flight-like hardware. Namely, Phase I research will further develop Iris AO's proven hybrid MEMS DM technology to: 1) make a critical assembly step in the fabrication process scalable to wafer scales and 2) increase drive electronics resolution to 16 bits while simultaneously reducing power requirements more than three-fold over existing 14-bit resolution electronics. The increased spatial and actuator resolution afforded by the development here will enable picometer resolution DMs required to reach 10^10 contrast levels necessary for direct detection of Earth-sized terrestrial planets.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:02:48.000Z
This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera instrument during the pluto cruise mission phase. This is VERSION 1.0 of this data set. The spacecraft was in hibernation for much of the Pluto Cruise mission phase, and the focus for RALPH (MVIC and LEISA) during Annual CheckOuts one through four (ACO1-4) was preparation for the Pluto Encounter in 2015, including functional tests, and calibrations. Science observations performed during this phase included Uranus and Neptune at phase angles (44 degrees and 34 degrees, respectively) not available from Earth (MVIC), calibrations with Neptune as a navigation test target (MVIC), Sun in the Solar Illumination Assembly (SIA) (MVIC and LEISA), the M6 and M7 clusters (MVIC), and other calibrations (stray light, dark, interference with other instruments).
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:16:03.000Z
As the amount of textual information grows explosively in various kinds of business systems, it becomes more and more desirable to analyze both structured data records and unstructured text data simultaneously. Although online analytical processing (OLAP) techniques have been proven very useful for analyzing and mining structured data, they face challenges in handling text data. On the other hand, probabilistic topic models are among the most effective approaches to latent topic analysis and mining on text data. In this paper, we study a new data model called topic cube to combine OLAP with probabilistic topic modeling and enable OLAP on the dimension of text data in a multidimensional text database. Topic cube extends the traditional data cube to cope with a topic hierarchy and stores probabilistic content measures of text documents learned through a probabilistic topic model. To materialize topic cubes efficiently, we propose two heuristic aggregations to speed up the iterative Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for estimating topic models by leveraging the models learned on component data cells to choose a good starting point for iteration. Experimental results show that these heuristic aggregations are much faster than the baseline method of computing each topic cube from scratch. We also discuss some potential uses of topic cube and show sample experimental results.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T10:53:04.000Z
<p>The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft interior outfitting components. Examples of inflatable IVA structures that can be assembled include crew quarters, waste & hygiene compartment, crew medical restraint system, splints, science payload racks, stowage and other equipment racks, science glove box, recreational devices, other portable devices, work surfaces and other workstations, support braces, other secondary structures, etc. This inflatable technology can enable such hardware to be packaged in much smaller volumes for delivery in logistics flights or potentially to be integrated within inflatable spacecraft, increasing trade space options. Crew can also reconfigure spacecraft in-flight, using the ability to 3D-print custom connectors to redesign living spaces or create entirely new interior architectures to respond to mission developments or psychosocial needs.</p> <p>The Habitabiltiy Design Center has already prototyped scale models of inflatable crew stations and initial prototypes of a standard interface connector. These connectors have demonstrated basic capability, but are too large relative to the airbeams for pracitcal use. We have a notional reduced size connector and will use this concept as a starting point, to fabricate and test under operational inflation pressures. Pending initial success, we will fabricate various connectors to provide several linear and angled connections. This will form the basic building block for assembly of a variety of crew stations and support hardware.</p><p> </p><p>This research addresses HAT Needs Numbers 12.1.a and 12.1.b and provides steps towards several HAT-specified performance targets: Bladder Material Selection: The potentially frequent cycles of inflation and deflation experienced by IVA inflatable structures will require bladder material and seal interfaces capable of resisting puncture, tear, flex cracking, or other damage due to folding, handling, or stowage temperatures. Predictive Modeling of Deployment Dynamics: Inflation or deflation may involve imparted torques and loads that require IVA inflatable structures to be anchored to the spacecraft secondary structure prior to the initiation of inflation or deflation. Lightweight Structures and Materials Optimization to Realize Structural System Dry Mass Savings (Minimum of 20-25%) and Operational Cost Savings: The inflatable air beam and connector technology offers significant dry mass savings over traditional IVA structural materials. Structural mass savings for an individual crew quarters is expected to be in excess of 75% over ISS crew quarters.</p><p> </p><p>The intended product deliverable of this activity includes three airbeams of at least 12-inch length and no less than one each of the following: 90-degree connector, 45-degree connector, 180-degree connector, 90-degree five-airbeam connector, 60-degree three-airbeam connector. Additionally, a test report and CAD models for each connector will constitute deliverables of this activity.</p><p> </p><p>Upon completion of this initial ICA effort, we will be able to demonstrate use of the airbeams in conjunction with existing Logistics to Living Modified Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTBs) to demonstrate deployable partitions as an initial example case. This demonistration will be helpful in explaining the potential for continued investment to reduce both mass and habitability risks. We will continue to pursue research funding for further development and will also pursue options to directly engage exploration programs to generate solutions for their specific mission architectures.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:44:31.000Z
As the air transportation system becomes more autonomous in the coming years, there will be an increasing need for monitoring capabilities that operate in the background to identify anomalous behaviors indicating safety or efficiency deficiencies. Today, these behaviors are largely detected after an incident has occurred. In July 2013, an Asiana Boeing 777 flew too low approaching San Francisco International Airport (SFO), its tail hitting a seawall and crashing into the runway. Three people died and 180 were injured. This type of anomalous behavior (i.e. foreign pilots consistently flying too low into SFO on visual approach) could have been detected prior to the crash because the data was available, but no one was looking at it. Metron proposes to develop a semi-autonomous background monitoring system to apply this type of data mining and data discovery to flight track data in order to identify opportunities for improvements to safety and efficiency in airspace operations. In the Phase I effort, Metron demonstrated a proof-of-concept statistical approach that we call the Normalcy Score Broker (NSB), which uses historical flight data to develop models of normal behavior, and then applies statistical methods to combine multiple features into a single score for identifying outliers. Metron has used this same NSB technique to develop operational systems for customers in the land and maritime domains. In the Phase II, we propose to extend the techniques to process at scale, whether for real-time streaming data or for efficient analyses on forensic repositories. In addition to generating new features associated with clusters of flights interacting with each other, we propose to incorporate greater context (e.g., flight behavior in the presence of convective weather) and learning techniques to reduce false positives based on operator feedback on the relevance of the reported anomalies. We will test and evaluate our software on the NASA Cloud-based SMART-NAS Test Bed.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:10.000Z
Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without visual cues (clouds, etc.), making it difficult to avoid. The vortices produced when atmospheric waves "break" can have diameters of 900-1200ft and tangential velocities of 70-85 ft/sec. CAT is dangerous to aircraft, recently demonstrated by United flight 967 from Washington-Dulles to Los Angeles on July 21, 2010, which encountered severe turbulence and landed in Denver with over 30 injured passengers, 21 requiring a hospital visit. Many other turbulence incidents have caused injuries or deaths to passengers and crew. Another recently-highlighted hazard is the inadequacy of current airspeed sensors on commercial aircraft. Federal investigators have reported that on at least a dozen recent flights by U.S. jetliners, malfunctioning equipment made it impossible for pilots to know how fast they were flying. A similar issue is believed to have played a role in the June 2009 crash of Air France 447 that killed all 228 people aboard. Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) proposes the Molecular Air Data and Clear Air Turbulence (MADCAT) system which will be capable of providing not only a look-ahead capability to predict clear air turbulence but also a full air data solution (airspeed, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, pressure and temperature). The technology has already been demonstrated in-flight, confirming its ability to measure these air-data parameters. In addition, ground units based upon the same core technology have demonstrated the ability to detect atmospheric turbulence. MAC's direct-detection UV LIDAR technology uses molecular backscatter and does not require airborne particles and/or vapor to be suspended in the air, as other proposed solutions based on radar and LIDAR do. This Phase 2 project will result in a laboratory test model of MADCAT and a plan for subsequent airborne testing.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:14:44.000Z
Under Phase 1, we investigated HT Drill, HT Trencher, and Pneumatic Sample Delivery. We found that HT Trencher and Blower-based pneumatic system won't be feasible or carried high risk associated with development of HT cutter materials. Rotary drill also did not penetrate hard rocks. For Phase 2, we propose HT Rotary-Percussive drill and 'suction' based pneumatic sample delivery. Honeybee is also submitting a separate Phase 2 for 3 DOF HT arm. If that proposal gets selected, the arm will deploy the drill and deposit the sample. The pneumatic system would still be needed to move the sample into an instrument. We plan to design and build TRL 5 system and incorporate HT motors developed by Honeybee under prior SBIR projects. The demonstration will be done in a HT chamber. We will investigate possibility of testing at NASA JPL's Venus chamber. The demo will include drilling into hard rocks and sample transfer to a mock up instrument.