- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T02:52:42.000Z
These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie (UMBC/GEST, NASA/GSFC), converted to HDF-EOS5 format. The stewardship of this HDF-EOS5 dataset is part of the MEaSUREs project. GSSTF version 2b (Shie et al. 2010, Shie et al. 2009) generally agreed better with available ship measurements obtained from several field experiments in 1999 than GSSTF2 (Chou et al. 2003) did in all three flux components, i.e., latent heat flux [LHF], sensible heat flux [SHF], and wind stress [WST] (Shie 2010a,b). GSSTF2b was also found favorable, particularly for LHF and SHF, in an intercomparison study that accessed eleven products of ocean surface turbulent fluxes, in which GSSTF2 and GSSTF2b were also included (Brunke et al. 2011). However, a temporal trend appeared in the globally averaged LHF of GSSTF2b, particularly post year 2000. Shie (2010a,b) attributed the LHF trend to the trends originally found in the globally averaged SSM/I Tb's, i.e., Tb(19v), Tb(19h), Tb(22v) and Tb(37v), which were used to retrieve the GSSTF2b bottom-layer (the lowest atmospheric 500 meter layer) precipitable water [WB], then the surface specific humidity [Qa], and subsequently LHF. The SSM/I Tb's trends were recently found mainly due to the variations/trends of Earth incidence angle (EIA) in the SSM/I satellites (Hilburn and Shie 2011a,b). They have further developed an algorithm properly resolving the EIA problem and successfully reproducing the corrected Tb's by genuinely removing the "artifactitious" trends. An upgraded production of GSSTF2c (Shie et al. 2011) using the corrected Tb's has been completed very recently. GSSTF2c shows a significant improvement in the resultant WB, and subsequently the retrieved LHF - the temporal trends of WB and LHF are greatly reduced after the proper adjustments/treatments in the SSM/I Tb's (Shie and Hilburn 2011). In closing, we believe that the insightful "Rice Cooker Theory" by Shie (2010a,b), i.e., "To produce a good and trustworthy 'output product' (delicious 'cooked rice') depends not only on a well-functioned 'model/algorithm' ('rice cooker'), but also on a genuine and reliable 'input data' ('raw rice') with good quality" should help us better comprehend the impact of the improved Tb on the subsequently retrieved LHF of GSSTF2c. This is the Daily (24-hour) product; data are projected to equidistant Grid that covers the globe at 1x1 degree cell size, resulting in data arrays of 360x180 size. A finer resolution, 0.25 deg, of this product has been released as Version 3. The GSSTF, Version 2c, daily fluxes have first been produced for each individual available SSM/I satellite tapes (e.g., F08, F10, F11, F13, F14 and F15). Then, the Combined daily fluxes are produced by averaging (equally weighted) over available flux data/files from various satellites. These Combined daily flux data are considered as the "final" GSSTF, Version 2c, and are stored in this HDF-EOS5 collection. There are only one set of GSSTF, Version 2c, Combined data, "Set1" The "individual" daily flux data files, produced for each individual satellite, are also available in HDF-EOS5, although from different collections: GSSTF_Fxx_2c, where Fxx are the individual satellites (F08, F10, etc..) The input data sets used for this recent GSSTF production include the upgraded and improved datasets such as the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Version-6 (V6) product of brightness temperature [Tb], total precipitable water [W], and wind speed [U] produced by the Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), as well as the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis-2 (R2) product of sea skin temperature [SKT], 2-meter air temperature [Tair], and sea level pressure [SLP]. Relevant to this MEaSUREs project, these are converted to HDF-EOS5, and are stored in the GSSTF_NCEP_2c collection. Please use these
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:40:01.000Z
<p>In the latter half of the 20th century, microprocessors faithfully adhered to Moore’s law, the well-known formulation of exponentially improving performance. As Gordon Moore originally predicted in 1965, the density of transistors, clock speed, and power efficiency in microprocessors doubled approximately every 18 months for most of the past 60 years. Yet this trend began to languish over the last decade. A law known as Dennard scaling, which states that microprocessors would proportionally increase in performance while keeping their power consumption constant, has broken down since about 2006; the result has been a trade-off between speed and power efficiency. Although transistor densities have so far continued to grow exponentially, even that scaling will stagnate once device sizes reach their fundamental quantum limits in the next ten years. </p> <p>Due to this stagnation, processors, like those used for NASA’s navigation, communication, and telemetry systems, lack the scaling necessary to push space exploration further. A more energy efficient architecture/technology is required in order to increase the information bits per unit energy, and push processors architectures pass the thermal limits currently preventing increased speeds. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platforms provide a solution to this emerging challenge. PICs are becoming a key part of communication systems in data centers, where microelectronic compatibility and high-yield, low-cost manufacturing are crucial. Because of their integration, PICs can allow photonic processing at a scale impossible with discrete, bulky optical-fiber counterparts, and scalable, CMOS-compatible silicon-photonic systems are on the cusp of becoming a commercial reality. More specifically, Neuromorphic Photonics allow for the benefits of PICs to be merged with the benefits associated with non Von-Neumann processor architectures allowing for increases in both speed and energy efficiency.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:17:42.000Z
This data set contains Antarctica radar sounder echo strength profiles from the Hi-Capability Radar Sounder (HiCARS) Version 2 instrument. The data were collected by scientists working on the Investigating the Cryospheric Evolution of the Central Antarctic Plate (ICECAP) project, which was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) with additional support from NASA Operation IceBridge.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:35:10.000Z
The BioWires project seeks to overcome two central issues identified in TA10-Nanotechnology: first, the miniaturization of nanoelectronics systems with features less than 10nm in size by 2025; and second the liberation of this technology from lithographic techniques for the minimization of upmass. Current technologies are unreliable at that scale and require exorbitantly heavy machinery to produce and maintain. This means that any unanticipated situations or failures encountered during a mission could not be addressed without large equipment, offsetting the impact of nanoscale systems. BioWires is an enabling technology, producing 2nm diameter wires in DNA that can self-assemble into advanced devices. In order to enhance the conductivity of nucleic acids to reach meaningful levels, a 1-atom thick chain of silver ions will be embedded into the core of the DNA strand. Because of the sequence specificity of DNA, these ions can be patterned in a variety of ways, ultimately allowing for advanced origami structures that mimic and ultimately replace nanoelectronic systems. These nanowire monomers can be synthesized by microorganisms at any point during a mission and self-assembled into devices without the burden of lithography and crippling upmass restrictions. This project has four phases. The first is to utilize a recent advance in single-molecule conductivity testing to bridge two carbon nanotubes with a DNA molecule. This process will take advantage of the hyprophillic interaction between PMMA and DNA by etching features onto silicon wafer to allow for specific placement of the molecules. This allows gold electrodes to be patterned at the ends of the tubes to generate molecule-specific data on electron transfer. Silver-embedded DNA will be assayed in this manner. The second phase will utilize this assembly and probing technique to assay a wide array of metalized nucleic acids by changing the metal, the pH, and the DNA structure. This will allow for the identification of the most conductive permutation and establish a basic monomeric toolkit for device assembly. The third phase will use the best system from the second phase to produce DNA origami structures in order to construct prototype nanoelectronic devices. The three target assemblies will be sheets, bundles and coils, allowing for microchip patterning, signal transduction and radio wave generation. These devices will provide a starting point for future manipulation of conductive biomolecular nanostructures. The final phase of the project will be to encode these DNA sequences back into microorganisms, specifically B. subtilis, a flight-tested microbe that is the target of current synthetic astrobiology research. This phase will employ techniques from synthetic biology and a modular system already created by the author to write the target one dimensional wires into the host DNA. Advanced origami structures can self-assemble from monomers produced by the bacterial chassis. This will reduce the upmass to a few spores that can be accessed at any point during a mission. Ultimately, this project will identify the ideal nucleic acid system for nanowire production at half an order of magnitude smaller than the TA10 target feature size. This will allow for the reliable, reproducible and scalable self-assembly of nanoelectronics from single components produced by a bacterial chassis, ultimately enabling minimal weight production and repair of a vast array of nanodevices on earth and in space.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:42:09.000Z
<p>To provide economical, reliable and safe access to space, design weaknesses should be identified earlier in the engineering life cycle, using model-based systems engineering. The slow manual approach to performing Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a barrier to early identification of weaknesses. To semi-automate the identification of failure modes and causes use a prototype FMEA Assistant, including a library with standard terminology, to classify components associated with failure modes and automatically identify candidate functions, infrastructure and failure modes. This automation will reduce cost and increase coverage, standardization and reuse. Early identification of design weaknesses can substantially reduce rework costs later in the life cycle, which are all too common in the testing phase. Use of SysML will closely link safety analysis with the overall engineering process, resulting in smoother collaboration and safer vehicles and missions. The resulting reusable model would become part of the model-based system engineering process.<p/><p>This project was a small proof-of-concept case study, generating SysML model information as a side effect of safety analysis. A prototype FMEA Assistant was used to semi-automate safety analysis that identifies failure modes and causes, using a library with standard SysML-compatible terminology to classify components associated with failure modes and to automatically identify candidate functions, infrastructure and failure modes. FMEA analysts select from standard functions and failures to systematically narrow down failure mode selection (presented in automatically created pick lists). Standard terminology from an existing Aerospace Ontology is used to classify components and automatically identify candidate functions and failure modes. With automatically created pick lists, analysts can easily and correctly select standard functions and failures for a SysML architecture model as a side effect of using FMEA Assistant. A white paper reports on a concept for using SysML profiles for safety analysis, to standardize FMEA-related terminology for reuse in several types of safety analysis (hazard analyses, fault trees, reliability block diagrams). See related project: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Simulation Tool</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:08:55.000Z
<p><strong><em>Earth’s stratosphere </em></strong><strong><em>is</em></strong> <strong><em>similar to the surface of Mars</em>: </strong>rarified air which is dry, cold, and irradiated. <strong><em>E-MIST</em></strong> is a balloon payload that has 4 independently rotating skewers that hold known-quantities of <strong><em>spore-forming bacteria </em></strong>isolated from spacecraft assembly facilities at NASA. Knowing the survival profile of microbes in the stratosphere can uniquely contribute to <strong><em>NASA Planetary Protection </em></strong>for Mars.</p><p><u>Objectives</u></p><p>1. Collect <strong><em>environmental data</em></strong> in the stratosphere to understand factors impacting microbial survival. </p><p>2. Determine % of <strong><em>surviving microbes </em></strong>(compared to starting quantities).</p><p>3. Examine microbial <strong>DNA mutations</strong> induced by stratosphere exposure.</p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> We designed, built and flew a self-contained payload, Exposing Microorganisms in the Stratosphere (E-MIST), on a large scientific balloon launched from New Mexico on 24 Aug 2014 . The payload carried <em>Bacillus pumilus</em> SAFR-032, a highly-resilient spore-forming bacterial strain originally isolated from a NASA spacecraft assembly facility. Our balloon test flight evaluated microbiological procedures and overall performance of the novel payload. Measuring the endurance of spacecraft-associated microbes at extreme altitudes may help predict their response on the surface of Mars since the upper atmosphere also exerts a harsh combination of stresses on microbes (e.g., lower pressure, higher irradiation, desiccation and oxidation) .</p><p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Our payload (83.3 cm x 53.3 cm x 25.4 cm; mass 36 kg) mounted onto the exterior of a high altitude balloon gondola. Four independent "skewers" rotated 180° to expose samples to the stratosphere. During ascent or descent, the samples remained enclosed within dark cylinders at ~25 °C. Each skewer had a base plate holding ten separate aluminum coupons with <em>Bacillus pumilus</em> spores deposited on the surface. Before and after the flight, <em>B. pumilus</em> was sporulated, enumerated and harvested using previously described techniques [3–5].</p><p>Major payload components were a lithium-ion battery, an ultraviolet (UV) radiometer (400 to 230 nm), humidity and temperatures sensors, and a flight computer. During the test flight, samples remained in a sealed position until the payload reached the lower stratosphere (~ 20 km above sea level). Next, the flight computer rotated the skewers into the outside air. After a short rotation demonstration (2 seconds), all skewers reverted to the closed position for the remainder of the flight. The payload continued floating at an altitude of 37.6 km for 4 hours before beginning a 23 minute descent on parachute.</p><p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>Our first test flight examined unknowns associated with sample transportation, gondola installation, balloon ascent/descent, and time lingering in the New Mexico desert awaiting payload launch and recovery. We created a batch of experimental control coupons (each containing approximately 1 x 10<sup>6</sup> spores) used throughout the investigation for ground and flight test purposes. Several treatment categories were evaluated: Lab Ground Coupons (kept in the KSC laboratory); Transported Ground Coupons (traveled to New Mexico and back but not installed in payload); and Flight Coupons (flown). A subset of coupons from each treatment category were processed, resulting in statistically equivalent viability (Kruskal–Wallis rank-sum test at a 95% confidence level). Taken together, nearly identical viability from all coupons indicate that balloon flight operations and payload procedures did not influence spore survival. A negative control (blank, sterile coup
Validation of Methods to Assess the Immunoglobulin Gene Repertoire in Tissues Obtained from Mice on the International Space Stationdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:14:11.000Z
Spaceflight is known to affect immune cell populations. In particular splenic B-cell numbers decrease during spaceflight and in ground-based physiological models. Although antibody isotype changes have been assessed during and after spaceflight an extensive characterization of the impact of spaceflight on antibody composition has not been conducted in mice. Next Generation Sequencing and bioinformatic tools are now available to assess antibody repertoires. We can now identify immunoglobulin gene- segment usage junctional regions and modifications that contribute to specificity and diversity. Due to limitations on the International Space Station alternate sample collection and storage methods must be employed. Our group compared Illumina MiSeq xc2 xae sequencing data from multiple sample preparation methods in normal C57Bl/6J mice to validate that sample preparation and storage would not bias the outcome of antibody repertoire characterization. In this report we also compared sequencing techniques and a bioinformatic workflow on the data output when we assessed the IgH and Ig xce xba variable gene usage. Our bioinformatic workflow has been optimized for Illumina HiSeq xc2 xae and MiSeq xc2 xae datasets and is designed specifically to reduce bias capture the most information from Ig sequences and produce a data set that provides other data mining options.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:55:28.000Z
Robotic systems in space carry a lower risk tolerance than robotic systems on earth. Humans require faster learning curves for introduction of more complex robotics in space, but the only way to accomplish this is to acquire open source software on easily adaptable hardware. This will enable astronauts to perform multiple design cycles while they are in space, such as on the ISS. Swift Engineering is proposing a lightweight surround visual and sensory feedback system for robotic pilots that can easily be transferable, and is modular and scalable to any robotic system. Using 360 degree cameras, LIDAR, and a Myo armband, the robotic pilot will be able to quickly adapt to any environment from anywhere, including mission control. The key is that all of this work is being built from open source platforms so that nothing becomes overly proprietary, and astronauts can perform design cycles in space quickly and efficiently.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:12:19.000Z
Procedures are the accepted means of commanding spacecraft. Procedures encode the operational knowledge of a system as derived from system experts, testing, training and experience. In current Space Shuttle and ISS operations procedures are displayed using applications separate from the applications used to display commands and telemetry. This means that procedures cannot interact with commands and telemetry to help an operator's situation awareness. This leads to slower procedure performance and greater opportunity for errors. TRACLabs is building on existing NASA Constellation program technology to combine procedures, commanding and telemetry into a single, consistent framework in which to operate space vehicles. Instead of viewing procedures in static displays, flight controllers will have interactive, reconfigurable procedure displays and assistants that can be tailored for specific situations. The displays will have different views tailored to specific operations, including browsing, assigning, editing, executing and monitoring procedures. A procedure executive automates some procedure execution and provides procedure assistance. Automation is always under the control of the flight controller via level of automation feature. Each step or instruction of a procedure can be labeled as manual, automated or consent. This will increase the efficiency of procedure performance and reduce procedure errors.
Computing Infrastructure and Remote, Parallel Data Mining Engine for Virtual Observatories, Phase IIdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T23:12:52.000Z
SciberQuest, Inc. proposes to develop a state-of-the-art data mining engine that extends the functionality of Virtual Observatories (VO) from data portal to science analysis resource. Our solution consists of two integrated products, IDDat and RemoteMiner: (1) IDDat is an advanced grid-based computing infrastructure which acts as an add-on to VOs and supports processing and remote data analysis of widely distributed data in space sciences. IDDat middleware design is such as to reduce undue network traffic on the VO. (2) RemoteMiner is a novel data mining engine that connects to the VO via the IDDat. It supports multi-users, has autonomous operation for automated systematic identification while enabling the advanced users to do their own mining and can be used by data centers for pre-mining. In addition, our data mining algorithms have reverse engineering capabilities which enable analytical derivation of models from time series data. These innovations will significantly enhance the science return from NASA missions by providing data centers and individual researchers alike an unprecedented capability to mine vast quantities of data. Phase II work will encompass the building of a full commercial product with associated production quality technical and user documentation.