- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-18T20:30:39.000Z
<p>Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications infrastructures. In airborne applications, this system enables a cost-effective, long-range, line-of-sight network link over the S and L frequency bands that supports data rates up to 10 megabits per second (Mbps) and a practically unlimited number of independent data streams. The resulting real-time payload link allows researchers to make in-flight adjustments to experimental parameters, increasing overall data quality and eliminating the need to repeat flights.</p><p><strong>Work to date</strong>: The team has developed and flight-tested the 10 Mbps bi-direction aircraft-to-ground, line-of-sight network. A follow-on project, Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification (SBRDC) Flight Demonstration #2, involved integration of this system with a phased-array antenna and controller to provide a 10 Mbps over-the-horizon network downlink. This prototype system was further refined into a more operational system that provided the Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) aboard the Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) access to thousands of parameters from the heavily instrumented aircraft. Engineers were able to view ARTS network data output in the control room, without replacing any aircraft instrumentation or ground equipment.&nbsp; Additionally, four streams of network data from onboard hot-film sensors was recorded onboard and transmitted to the control room.</p><p><strong>Looking ahead</strong>: Work has begun to design a new system that incorporates state-of-the-art transceiver technology. The new system is expected to allow a five-fold improvement in throughput, to 40 Mbps.</p><p><strong>Benefits</strong></p><ul><li><strong>Flexible</strong>: Expands the utility of existing airborne platforms with legacy communications systems by supporting state-of-the-art payloads that leverage current network technology</li><li><strong>Economical</strong>: Achieves a bi-directional, line-of-sight network without the need to replace existing communications infrastructure</li><li><strong>Flight efficient</strong>: With real-time control of experimental parameters, reduces the need for repeat flights</li></ul><p><strong>Applications</strong></p><ul><li>Secure local line-of-sight communications</li><li>Global space-based communications via satellite links</li></ul>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:49:57.000Z
Nearly all mechanism applications require some form of gearbox. Wet lubricated gearbox technologies are limited to the relatively narrow temperature ranges of their lubricants. Dry lubricated gearboxes have proven to be problematic with poor life and reliability characteristics. Testing has shown that dry lubricated rolling elements can be made to work reliably provided they are operated at conservative contact stresses, however when dry film lubrications are tested under the sliding conditions in conventional transmissions they are no longer reliable. During the Phase I SBIR Rocketstar Robotics developed the preliminary design of a transmission that consists of all rolling elements and has eliminated all of the sliding elements that exist in conventional gearing. The transmission operates at contact stress values that are conservative and within the envelope proven through previous testing to provide reliable performance in rolling elements. The resulting transmission can be provided in a range of sizes and offers considerable torque capability within a reasonable envelope while operating within conservative rolling contact stress regimes at operating temperatures from near absolute zero to over 500C. The development and test of a successful prototype could revolutionize the torque transmission industry and open the door to mechanisms operations over a much broader temperature range than is now possible. Rocketstar Robotics proposes that the design be carried through the detailed design phase which includes detailed analysis models and that multiple prototypes be built of two different size transmissions. The units would then be tested for performance and life over the extremes of temperature from near cryogenic to 500C operation. Rocketstar will build 3 small 100 in-lb units and 3 large 400 in-lb units for testing along with spare splines to allow development testing with multiple DFL types. One of each unit will be delivered to NASA.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:06:03.000Z
<p>Novel Processing Approach to Enable Hybrid Material System Designs for Turbine and Rocket Engines</p><p>Demonstrate feasibility of using electron beam melting (EBM) for a hybrid disk, where a state-of-the-art powder metallurgy alloy (LSHR) is bonded to single-crystal Ni-alloy (LDS).</p> <p>The successful completion of this effort will demonstrate that direct deposition is a viable technique to successfully fabricate hybrid components of two dissimilar materials that typically are bonded to create the final structure.</p><p>These type of dissimilar metal bonds is a technology that has yet to be demonstrated using additive manufacturing (AM). Only recently have monolithic advanced nickel-based superalloys AM builds been observed and reported in the literature. No known work has been published of satisfactory fabrication of even monolithic high strength powder metal disk alloys, which have been verified to be durable for rotating, fatigue-critical hardware. If successful, the work here would establish the proof-of-concept of an AM hybrid disk, as well as platform for the creation of new hybrid components.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:46:54.000Z
Scientific/Technical/Management Science Goals and Objectives: A major goal of the NASA planetary space program has been the search for life in our solar system. On Mars, this effort has been focused on the successful search for water and habitability. The next step will be searching specific locations for signs of past life. One of the most promising places are the hydrothermal sinter deposits in the Nili Patera caldera of the Syrtis Major volcano. These deposits would have been long-lived, with the suitable environmental conditions and provide a well-mapped feature for a targeted mission. To prepare for this type of mission, we propose a series of experiments and field operations to develop the required methodologies. Operating at an extinct hot spring deposit in a Martian analog and extreme life environment in Iceland, we will collect samples and in-situ measurements to determine the resolutions and data sets required to answer the key mission objectives. We will also test trafficability to determine the spacecraft capabilities required for mission success. The proposed advancements break down into the categories of Science, Science Operations and Technology. Science objectives will focus building on the extensive set of terrestrial literature to answer questions specific to this mission. For example, how do we identify all potential signs of life preserved in the sinters and how to sinters record signs of environmental and volcanic properties. Specific to this proposal will be to understand what spacecraft instruments will be required to answer these questions. Science Operations will focus on the suite of instruments needed to operate together to answer the mission goals and what type of samples and mobility will be required for success. The Technology section will be to develop the methods to meet the requirements determined by the science effort. This includes sample collection and handling methodology and determining a plan to develop currently available field instruments into planetary capable versions. Methodology: Dr. Skok will lead a diverse team of hydrothermal, biological and instrumental experts to study a comparable hot spring deposit in Iceland to examine all the potential mission issues and scenarios, along with sample requirements. A combination of lab analysis of collected samples and in-situ deployment of field instruments will be used to prepare for this future mission. Relevance to Planetary Science and Technology Through Analog Research: This proposal meets the stated PSTAR goal of funding projects to planetary analog sites to develop the technologies and methodologies required for future missions, especially to extreme environments. Hot spring environments are key habitats on Earth and provide a planetary independent energy source and habitable zone.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:54:02.000Z
Automated detection of land cover changes between multitemporal images (i.e., images captured at different times) has long been a goal of the remote sensing discipline. Most technology in this area has focused on methods for detecting and identifying land cover or surface object changes in two or more images, but precise co-registration of images remains a key challenge. In fact, image-to-image registration and image-based change detection are intricately related, as the success of conducting both relies on the precision of the other; software that supports these functions should do so in an integrative manner. Image registration is the key factor influencing the success of detecting land cover changes at or near pixel scale. We will develop tools in the form of a "software development kit" (SDK) specifically optimized for precise co-registration of two or more images with minimal user interaction, with the primary motivation to enable change detection algorithms to focus on salient changes rather than highlight image registration errors. The SDK will be available to NASA at no cost, after which we will build user applications based on the SDK for commercial offering.
Validation of the NSBRI Astronaut Cardiovascular Health and Risk Modification (ASTRO-CHARM) Integrated Cardiovascular Risk Calculatordata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:04:16.000Z
In 2012, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) supported the development of an integrated tool, termed the Astronaut Cardiovascular Health and Risk Modification (ASTRO-CHARM) Integrated Cardiovascular Risk Calculator. The initial version of this tool was delivered to NSBRI in February of 2014 and has already been implemented in spaceflight on an ad hoc basis. This project seeks to update and validate the ASTRO-CHARM calculator. <p></p> Specific Aim 1: To refine the ASTROCHARM tool using extended cardiovascular (CV) event data. Version 1 of the ASTROCHARM tool comprised 6782 subjects with a 159 CV events over a mean follow up of 7.5 years. Both the Dallas Heart Study (DHS) and Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) have now extended their CV event follow up to 10 years. Given the younger age of the cohort and resultant lower event rates, enhancing the endpoint numbers will provide more stability and accuracy for the updated risk score model (ASTRO-CHARM version 2.0). <p></p> Specific Aim 2: To validate the ASTROCHARM tool using the Framingham Heart Study coronary artery calcium (CAC) cohort. The ASTRO-CHARM tool demonstrated robust measures of internal validity when assessed in the original combined cohort. These included accurate event rate calibration, as well as improvement in the c-statistic and clinical risk reclassification compared with traditional risk factors alone. However, external validation in another cohort is essential before broader implementation. The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) is the highly regarded original large U.S.-based population-based cohort, where CV risk scores originated. A cohort of the FHS underwent CAC scanning including 2740 subjects <65 years of age, with a mean 8 years of CV event follow up data, and is an ideal study in which to validate the ASTRO-CHARM model. <p></p> Specific Aim 3: To develop a mobile device application to facilitate broad implementation of the ASTRO-CHARM tool. The near universal availability of mobile technologies has enabled broader use of more sophisticated risk scores. Prior versions such as the Framingham Risk Score initially used tabular formats and adding of integer points, and were infrequently utilized in clinical practice. The Pooled Cohort Equation as part of the New 2013 ACC/AHA (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association) Cholesterol Guidelines has witnessed brisk uptake of a more complex algorithm, partly due to a well-received mobile app that has witnessed more than 64,000 downloads in its first two months.Once validated, a similar tool developed for the ASTROCHARM will greatly enhance its clinical impact. <p></p> ASTROCHARM Version 2. The investigators have extended endpoint data to include another 145 events (304 total), with a median follow up of 10.9 years. They have used these expanded endpoints to refine the ASTRO-CHARM calculator and assessed measures of internal validity of the new calculator including discrimination and calibration which were all robust. They applied the ASTRO-CHARM model to the Framingham Heart Study CAC cohort (n=2057). The ASTRO-CHARM calculator showed good discrimination (c-statistic 0.79) and calibration (Goodness-of-Fit Chi-square: 13.2, p=0.16) in the Framingham study. The authors developed a prototype iPhone app for the ASTRO-CHARM and demonstrated this tool to NASA/NSBRI in late July of 2016. They are preparing the manuscript for scientific publication and the app for broad dissemination for NASA/NSBRI and terrestrial medicine applications. <p></p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:45:20.000Z
SSG Precision Optronics proposes the development and demonstration of a new optical fabrication process for the production of EUV quality Silicon Carbide (SiC) optics. The process combines three technologies to provide a cost and schedule effective solution for lightweight, thermally stable precision optics for EUV applications. First, near-net-shape cast SiC materials for monolithic lightweighted, SiC mirror substrates with minimal machining required. Second, a thin CVD SiC sputter deposition process applied to the mirror facesheet. This enables a low-scatter surface as well as high reflectance in the EUV band. Third, the application of Tinsley?s computer controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) grinding and polishing makes it possible to generate aspheres with extremely accurate surfaces. The manufacturing process proposed allows production of state-of-the-art SiC aspheric mirrors with numerous benefits compared to competing technologies and traditional processes: ?Excellent Surface Figure Accuracy (<0.01 waves RMS, over low and mid-spatial-frequency measurements); ?Ultra-low micro-roughness (<10 Angstroms RMS routine, <1 Angstrom RMS achievable); ?Improved yield; ?Very low areal densities (~10 kg/m2 at an aperture of 1 meter); ?Superior thermal stability (SiC bulk material properties); In Phase 2, SSGPO will demonstrate an optimized optical fabrication process by producing a SiC EUV flight-ready optic.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T23:08:44.000Z
Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without leaking at 2,125 psi, within 3.5% of the predicted burst pressure. This SBIR will analyze, design, build, and test much lighter weight all composite cryogenic tanks and examine, develop, and test alternative insulation techniques to minimize boil-off. This SBIR will also examine the reuse of propellant tanks as crew and storage habitats. During Phase I, we will design and fabricate 12 10-inch diameter and 2 25-inch diameter cryogenic tanks with a design burst pressure of approximately 850 psi. Eight of the 10-inch tanks and one 25-inch tank will be thermally cycled and burst tested using liquid nitrogen to obtain statistical data. The remaining 4 10-inch tanks will first be thermally cycled, then flushed out and re-pressurized with gaseous helium to simulate reuse as a crew habitat. The remaining 25-inch tank will be delivered to NASA for further testing. Phase II will fabricate, build, and test larger tanks and tanks specifically intended to meet the needs of future NASA programs, and alternative insulation approaches will be evaluated to minimize boil-off.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:51:08.000Z
The innovation proposed here is a computational framework for high performance, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent, reacting or non-reacting flows involving real or ideal fluids. This framework will provide a state-of-the-art unsteady turbulent flow simulation capability by laying the foundation for the incorporation of Hybrid RANS-LES (HRLES) methods which are a blend of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. This design and analysis tool will be built on a currently existing solver called Loci-STREAM which has been developed by the proposing firm under funding from NASA over the last four years. The work proposed here will result in a state-of-the-art design and analysis tool to enable the accurate modeling of small valves, turbopumps, combustion devices, etc. which constitute critical components of versatile space propulsion engines with deep throttling capability as part of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration Mission. Of particular relevance to NASA, this design and analysis tool will provide improved understanding and quantification of the time-varying, reacting flow environments in the thrust chamber assembly of space propulsion engines.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T04:48:48.000Z
This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Student Dust Counter instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission phase.