Development and Space Environmental Testing of a new Low-Cost Induction Magnetometer for Small Satellitesdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:07:02.000Z
<p>Science Goals and Objectives: A fundamental parameter of the Sun-Earth space environment is the magnetic field. The magnetic field of the Sun and Earth constrain the motion of the plasma and energetic particle environment, define different boundaries (shocks, discontinuities) and regions of the Sun-Earth system, and interact with the plasma environment through waves and magnetic reconnection to energize and interconnect the solar and terrestrial plasma environments. Small satellites, such as CubeSats, enable the development of future constellation missions that have scores of spacecraft. Recently “deep space” CubeSats have been proposed that could be used for a magnetosphere constellation mission to measure the structure of the Earth’s magnetotail to determine the spatial scale of phenomena such as bursty bulk flows, reconnection sites, the general convection patterns in the plasma sheet, and magnetic structures such as flux rope plasmoids. Such a constellation mission in combination with MHD models provide the first ever global time evolving vector field and streamline images of the magnetotail. In order to meet these science objectives low-cost, low-volume, low-mass and low-power vector magnetometers are needed on each spacecraft. These magnetometers will provide a snapshot of the global magnetotail magnetic field that can be used to identify magnetotail regions and energy state, provides crucial observations of signatures of dynamic processes such as magnetic reconnection, flux rope formation and evolution, magnetic flux convection, and the ULF wave environment. The magnetic field strength provides the information needed for calculations of the particle phase space density, plasma Beta, and Alfvén speed. Because of its importance for understanding essentially all of the outstanding questions in space physics and its importance for space weather predictions, essentially all future NASA Heliophysics missions require a vector magnetometer so this instrument development proposal would have broad impact. Methodology: To address the science requirements of future Heliophysics missions and to enable large scale-constellation missions, this proposal has a goal of reducing the cost (to $1000s of dollars), mass (order of 10 grams), volume (about 2 cm3) and power (< 100 mW) of traditional fluxgate magnetometers by an order of magnitude over those currently flown while having comparable precision, noise-level, linearity, and stability. The UM new digital induction magnetometer takes advantage of mobile phone magnetometer sensor development to reduce the mass, power consumption, and increase the radiation tolerance of the fluxgate magnetometer. The instrument does not use an A/D converter making it much more radiation tolerant than traditional fluxgate magnetometer designs. The commercial magneto-inductive magnetometer from PNI is modified and used with custom-built sensors to increase the sensitivity. In the new induction magnetometer, the magnetic field is measured by counting the time between flips of the magnetic induction of the circuit, which is dependent on the strength of the applied DC field [Leuzinger and Taylor, 2010]. One of the hidden costs of fluxgate magnetometers is the need for a boom. This drives up the complexity of the mission and adds significant mass due to cabling and the boom itself. By driving down the resource needs and cost of the magnetometer, a new approach can be incorporated in CubeSats that eliminates the need for a boom [e.g., Sheinker and Moldwin, 2015]. This approach places several magnetometers inside and on the bus to be able to identify spacecraft magnetic signals in the data so that the external field can be recovered with processing and careful magnetic cleanliness and characterization prior to launch.</p>
Cooperation and adaptability in microbial mats from extreme environments: Quorum sensing and its relation to early life on Earth and elsewheredata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:44:30.000Z
For billions of years, Bacteria and Archaea have formed organized communities in microbial mats. Such cooperation among microbes has played determinative roles in the persistence of life, and provides insight into how life on Earth and elsewhere may respond to and evolve in extreme conditions. A key cooperative mechanism among cells in high density habitats is quorum sensing (QS) using cell-to-cell signals. Genetic evidence suggests QS evolved 3.4 GYA, and was likely important during life's early evolution when extreme environments prevailed. However, QS has not been explored in an astrobiology context, nor in astrobiologically relevant extreme environments, where deep branching microbial lineages thrive. This paucity of data presents a critical knowledge gap. We propose to investigate QS in microbial mats in hypersaline systems and lava caves, both analogs of habitats believed to have been present on early Earth and Mars; both also host deep-branching Archaea and Bacteria. Our main hypothesis is that QS signaling contributes to microbial-survival and resiliency under multiple extreme conditions. We will focus specifically on genetic components of QS, and how they drive gene expression during changing extreme conditions. Doing so will establish a solid foundation for understanding QS in mats in extreme environments, analogs of which thrived in early life on Earth. QS is a fundamental life process leading to higher organization and also a critical pathway through which microbes tolerate and adapt to environmental extremes similar to those that prevailed on early Earth and Mars. Objective 1: QS occurs in extreme environments: hypersaline mats and Hawaiian lava caves. H1: QS occurs among phylogenetically diverse Bacteria and Archaea in extreme environments. Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are well-studied signaling molecules that confer important metabolic properties on microbes, but their diversity and activities in microbes in extreme environments are poorly understood. AHL signaling comprises a conserved AHL and a receptor protein (i.e., luxR homolog). Our preliminary data show the presence of AHLs in hypersaline mats. However, additional work is needed to determine if AHL-based QS systems are common in microbial communities in extreme environments. We will investigate genetic bases of AHL-QS and phylogenetic diversities of luxR homologs as possible mechanisms of adaptability in these communities. Objective 2: QS confers and enhances survivability under changing extremes in early Earth- and early Mars-like environments. H2: Both the types of signals used by Archaea and Bacteria and resulting gene expression, change as conditions (salinity, desiccation, UV) become more extreme. We posit from our preliminary results that certain signals are less susceptible to degradation than shorter-chain counterparts. We thus predict that cells will utilize more-resilient signals under harsh environmental conditions. This in turn will test the potential for life to adapt to changing environmental extremes, and its implications for life elsewhere. To do so, we will determine changes in levels of gene expression, concentrations and types of AHLs in natural, multi-species mats, and in isolates exposed to varying extreme environmental conditions (high UV CO2, desiccation, salinity) in both a Planetary Environmental Liquid Simulator (PELS) and controlled atmosphere chamber. Objective 3: AHL signals persist over time through extreme environmental changes. H3: QS signals are preserved under extreme conditions (high salinity, desiccation, UV). This contributes to recovery and persistence of cooperative processes in mats. Our preliminary studies show that extracellular osmolytes protect AHLs in natural hypersaline mats during desiccation and UV exposure. When more favorable conditions return, this may elicit community-wide recovery rather than just individual cell survival, and enhance community survival over long periods.
Software workflows and tools for integrating remote sensing and organismal occurrence data streams to assess and monitor biodiversity changedata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:43:43.000Z
Remote sensing combined with rapidly growing types and amounts of in situ spatiotemporal biodiversity data now enable an unrivaled opportunity for planetary scale monitoring of biodiversity change. However, i) the breadth of remote-sensing data streams of different spectral and spatiotemporal nature, ii) the heterogeneity of spatial biodiversity data types, including individual movement GPS tracks, survey- or sensor-based inventories, and vast citizen science observations, and iii) the spatial and temporal scale-dependence of biodiversity change and its detection, all necessitate versatile technology capable of complex data fusion. This need is further exacerbated by ongoing growth of data that requires highly scalable visualization and analysis solutions. No general solution currently exists. The objective of the proposed work is to fill this gap with dedicated open-source software workflows and tools to the benefit of both remote sensing and biodiversity change communities. The proposed work will build on earlier developments of global remote-sensing supported climate and environmental layers for biodiversity assessment and develop a general workflow that allows the environmental annotation, visualization, and change assessment for past and future spatial biodiversity occurrence data. Observed, in-situ biodiversity has intrinsic spatiotemporal grain and associated uncertainty based on observation methodology and data collection. Likewise, remotely sensed environmental data also vary in spatiotemporal grain from meters to kilometers. This project will develop technical infrastructure and software workflows to easily develop and serve appropriate summaries of environmental data for biodiversity observations. For example, a list of migrating birds observed from one location one afternoon would require a different summary of environmental data compared to a list of vascular plants known to exist in a 100km2 protected area. We will develop algorithms that automate appropriate summaries of relevant environmental data to characterize the spatiotemporal environmental context of the in-situ biodiversity observation. Furthermore, this system will draw from near-real time collection of RS and RS-derived environmental data (such as land surface temperature, precipitation, and vegetation indices) to enable both historical and near real-time annotation of continuously updating biodiversity data streams. Our scalable system will be capable of fusing large spatial biodiversity data available through Map of Life (https://mol.org), including data assets from GBIF (http://www.gbif.org, >700M records), public Movebank GPS tracking records (https://www.movebank.org, ~20M records), and other incidental and inventory datasets (~100M records). The generalized software workflows and tools will enable characterization and comparison of environmental associations of individuals, populations or species over time, globally. This will allow the quantification of observed environmental niches as well as the detection of change through time in both environmental associations and geographic distributions of biodiversity. Our proposal addresses the ROSES A.41 solicitation dramatically improving the ease with which the biology and ecology communities can understand, select and use appropriately NASA remote sensing data." And the planned workflows will provide some "automated analytic techniques to scale the use of all relevant observational data in the understanding of patterns and processes in biodiversity" as well as "tools which aid the researcher in formulating and evaluating hypotheses quickly." The proposed work will address the biodiversity aspect of the overarching science goal of the NASA CC&E focus area "Detect and predict changes in Earth's ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, including land cover, biological diversity, and the global carbon cycle." The planned entry TRL for this project is 2-3 and the exit is aimed at TRL 5-6."
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:46:56.000Z
We propose the CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission to demonstrate wideband RFI mitigating backend technologies vital for future space-borne microwave radiometers. Recent passive microwave measurements below 40 GHz have shown an increase in the amount of man-made interference, corrupting geophysical retrievals in a variety of crucial science products, including soil moisture, atmospheric water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea surface winds, and many others. Spectrum for commercial use is becoming increasingly crowded, accelerating demand to open the bands reserved for passive microwave Earth observation and radio astronomy applications to general use. Due to current shared spectrum allocations, microwave radiometers must co-exist with terrestrial RFI sources. For example, the GPM Microwave Imager currently in orbit is impacted by RFI from commercial systems over both land and sea. As these sources expand over larger areas and occupy additional spectrum, it will be increasingly difficult to perform radiometry without an RFI mitigation capability. Co-existence in some cases should be possible provided that a subsystem for mitigation of RFI is included in future systems. Successful RFI mitigation will not only open the possibility of microwave radiometry in any RFI intensive environment, but will also allow future systems to operate over a larger bandwidth resulting in lower measurement noise. This crucial technology is required for the US to maintain a national capability for spaceborne microwave radiometry. Initial progress in RFI mitigation technologies for microwave radiometry has been achieved in the SMAP mission, which is currently operating in space a digital subsystem for this purpose in a 24 MHz bandwidth centered in the protected 1413 MHz band. RFI subsystems for higher frequency microwave radiometry over the range 6-40 GHz however require a larger bandwidth, so that the capabilities of RFI mitigation backends in terms of bandwidth and processing power must also increase. To date, no such wideband subsystem has been demonstrated in space for radiometers operating above 1413 MHz. The enabling technology is a digital Field-Programmable Gate Array-based spectrometer with a bandwidth of 1 GHz or more and capable of implementing advanced RFI mitigation algorithms such as the kurtosis and cross-frequency methods. This technology has a strong ESTO heritage, with the algorithms developed and demonstrated via the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) and wideband backends developed under other ESTO support. The digital backend is currently at TRL 5, having been successfully tested in an RFI environment, and can be ported easily to a flight-ready firmware. Though the technology can be demonstrated for any frequency band from 1 to 40GHz, we will integrate the backend with a wideband radiometer operating over a 1 GHz bandwidth tunable from 6-40 GHz to demonstrate RFI detection and mitigation in important microwave radiometry bands. Along with a wideband dual-helical antenna, the payload will be integrated with a 6U CubeSat to demonstrate operation of the backend at TRL 7. The payload is expected to operate at a minimum duty-cycle of 25% to be compatible with spacecraft power capacity. Although the spatial resolution to be achieved will be coarse (due to the limited antenna size possible), the goal of demonstrating observation, detection, and mitigation of RFI is achievable in this configuration. The proposed demonstration will act as an immediate risk reduction of new technologies that are necessary for future Earth science missions. The technology will allow newly enabled measurements by operating in previously untenable spectral regions over larger bandwidths. The benefits from the above technology are directly relevant to all future microwave Earth science missions, such as SCLP, GMI follow on, SMAP follow on, and others.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:42:47.000Z
GLO: A Solar Occultation Instrument Suitable for Constellations of Small Satellites A key challenge in the Earth Science community is to exploit rapidly advancing microsatellite (microsat) technology in the task of providing the myriad of global measurements required to understand key processes. Microsats offer the possibility of inexpensive access to space, but also present payload design challenges resulting from issues such as limited size, weight, and power (SWaP) capacity and pointing capability. We propose a technology demonstration of an instrument we refer to as GLO (GFCR (Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry) Limb solar Occultation) which would measure the vertical profile of atmospheric trace species, with state-of-the-art accuracy. GLO contains 23 Visible Near Infrared (VNIR) and Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectral bands and measures 10 constituents plus temperature (T), yet fits into a 29x16x16 cm form factor, weighs 5.25 kg, consumes just 28.2 W during observations, and does not levy stringent pointing requirements to the spacecraft. GLO has heritage from HALOE and AIM/SOFIE, both highly successful solar occultation (SO) instruments, but (using recent advances in focal plane array (FPA), and cooler technology) is much smaller and requires substantially less power. In addition, it has significantly improved vertical resolution, pointing, and Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol and T measurement capability, as well as much reduced sensitivity to aerosol contamination in trace gas retrievals. Novel aspects of the GLO sensor include: use of tactical, but space qualified, imaging FPAs (low cost); GFCR with imaging arrays (precise channel coalignment and registration); proxy GFCR for UTLS H2O and O3 (increased insensitivity to aerosol contamination in the UTLS); and VNR plus SWIR aerosol extinction measurement capability (aerosol extinction plus bulk properties). While GLO could have many applications (including, e.g., an inexpensive stratospheric monitoring sensor), we conceived it to probe a key but poorly documented component of the climate system, the UTLS, in a mission concept referred to as SOCRATES (Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species). The goal of SOCRATES is to quantify the role of the UTLS in climate change. For SOCRATES, GLO measures T, radiatively active gases (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), aerosols, and transport tracers (HDO, CO, HCN, HF, HCl) with vertical resolution (<1 km) and geographic sampling required for UTLS radiative forcing calculations. Satellite SO instruments provide high vertical resolution and precision, but sample only 2 latitudes per orbit. To mitigate this shortcoming, SOCRATES consists of a constellation of 6 GLO sensors, deployed from a single launch vehicle into orbits with slightly different mean altitudes. The dispersing orbits provide the required spatial and temporal sampling, with coverage from ±65° latitude. We have shown that the SOCRATES GLO constellation (6 sensors & microsats) meets all measurement complement, accuracy, vertical resolution, and spatial sampling requirements, and can be fabricated, launched, and operated in a 26-month mission within the NASA Earth Venture Mission cost capped budget. Under this proposal, we will refine the design and fabricate a complete prototype GLO sensor [identical in form, fit and function to the SOCRATES/GLO sensor except for the use of non-space qualified (but functionally identical) components], perform functional and environmental tests to confirm it can meet SOCRATES measurement requirements, and validate the instrument concept through ground and balloon-based observations. This will provide a nearly complete demonstration of the GLO technology, and measurement approach and capabilities. The goal is to raise the GLO sensor technique and design from TRL 4 to TRL 6, providing risk reduction for the SOCRATES mission concept, and for the use of GLO in other missions.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:39:50.000Z
<p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">Busek proposes to develop a new form of passive electrospray thruster control which will enable extremely fast thruster operations and thereby unprecedented minimum impulse bits. Busek’s BET-300-P thruster is under active development as a precision reaction control system (RCS) which will provide orders of magnitude improvements over state-of-the-art alternative attitude control systems (ACS) for CubeSats and small spacecraft. The low inertia of CubeSats combined with vibrational disturbances and resolution limitations of state-of-the-art ACS presently limit precision body-pointing and position control. Busek’s electrospray thrusters aboard the ESA LISA Pathfinder (NASA ST-7) spacecraft, recently demonstrated control of a proof mass location to within ~2nm per root Hz over a wide band. The BET-300-P, enhanced by exploitation of its high-speed dynamic response in this program, seeks to extend that success to small spacecraft platforms.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">Passively fed electrospray thrusters are highly compact, including fully integrated propellant supplies, and are capable of ~100nN thrust precision with 10’s of nN noise. Thrust can be accurately throttled over >30x, up to a scalable maximum of 10’s to 100’s of uN. While typically operated in largely continuous states they are unique in that emission can be electrically stopped/started at ms time scales. Thus, extremely low impulse bits may be achieved over very short durations, permitting throttling from <0.1uNs up to 100’s of uNs. Realization of this fundamental capability of the technology is presently limited by control circuitry. The proposed work seeks to study and overcome these limitations with a new control methodology.</p> <p>These traits, combined with >800s specific impulse, and thereby low propellant mass could enable these systems to replace traditional reaction wheel ACS and high-propellant mass cold gas systems; enabling milliarcsec control authority for CubeSats versus the present arcsec level SOA.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:47:49.000Z
This is a linked proposal from UCLA in support of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) mission in direct support of the lead proposal which has been submitted by Prof Peter W. Gorham of the University of Hawaii. ANITA seeks to detect and elucidate the sources of the highest energy particles in the universe via measurements of cosmogenic ultra-high energy neutrinos. Such neutrinos are in many cases predicted to be the only unattenuated astrophysical messengers that arrive at Earth with precise directional information, since neutrinos are neutral particles with very weak interactions with matter in intergalactic space. Neutrinos that ANITA seeks to detect will signal the presence of the most extreme astrophysical accelerators and environments, and complement the information available via electromagnetic messengers from gamma-rays to radio waves. ANITA uses a long-duration balloon payload equipped with 48 dual-polarization horn antennas to detect radio impulses in the frequency range 200-1200 MHz, within which the properties of cold Antarctic ice include extreme radio-transparency and depths of up to 4 km. If a neutrino interacts anywhere within the ice sheet in ANITA's view from stratospheric altitudes, we can detect the emerging radio impulse and determine its direction and other characteristics with high precision. This in turn allows us to select candidate neutrinos from among the thermal and anthropogenic backgrounds with high confidence, and to derive angular information about the arrival direction of such candidates as well. Recently ANITA analysis investigated a new detection channel, which focuses on tau-lepton-generating neutrinos, which lead to a unique experimental signature for which ANITA has potentially very high sensitivity, and a candidate event has been detected in prior data. This new detection channel has added to the variety of methods by which ANITA continues to improve its sensitivity and reach into predicted models for cosmogenic neutrinos, for which ANITA has among the best constraints of any detector to date. ANITA is currently the only active NASA mission with the capability to measure ultra-high energy neutrinos, and ANITA's ultra-high energy neutrino sensitivity while on orbit is unmatched by any other instrument, ground- or space-based. As such it is a direct contributor to our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe, through astrophysical messengers that provide unique information about the most extreme and energetic objects in the cosmos.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:04:30.000Z
<p>This project will transform how waste heat is managed on aircraft by successfully demonstrating a novel NASA patent-pending aircraft waste heat recovery and recycling system. The objective is to remove low grade waste heat that is generated throughout high power composite body aircraft while improving overall vehicle performance.</p>
Multi-Band Radiometric Imager Utilizing Uncooled Microbolometer Arrays with Piezo Backscan for Earth Observation Mission Applicationsdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:43:41.000Z
DRS Technologies takes pleasure in presenting this Multi-Band Uncooled Radiometer Imager (MURI) proposal for the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) that will provide improved radiometric imaging performance, substantially reduce the cost, complexity, and development time for future Polar Orbiting earth observation imaging radiometer sensors. Our proposed solution leverages conventional, low cost uncooled microbolometers with a compact piezo driven backscan and our patented TCOMP algorithms for improved radiometric accuracy and stability. Our solution eliminates the need for cryogenic cooling, solves the problem of image smear associated with the bolometers relatively long time constant, while simultaneously ensuring low NEDT. The objective of the DRS proposed MURI program is to demonstrate that modern, low cost, large area microbolometer FPAs can be utilized to provide narrow band radiometrically accurate imaging in 8 LWIR bands for Earth Science applications. The potential earth science applications for this technology are Land Surface Climatology, measurement of soil moisture content, measurement of Ecosystem Dynamics, Volcano Monitoring, Hazard monitoring, Geology and Soils. On the IIP Program, DRS plans to design, build, test and demonstrate an uncooled microbolometer breadboard sensor hardware for earth observation. Our Science partner, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), will support the airborne data collects, radiometric data analysis and comparison to LANDSAT 8 for a “truth reference” and the science implementation aspect of the instrument data collects. DRS/RIT will collect airborne data for three primary applications in 8 spectral bands. The first will assess initial data quality and calibration with known targets deployed, the second will demonstrate scientific products available over vegetative and urban environments, while the third will demonstrate important aspects of volcano monitoring. One key technological solution is the use of a piezo back-scan stage located at the image plane. The piezo drive velocity will be set to match the aircraft ground velocity during image collection, such that the image smear from the bolometer’s long time constant is eliminated. This is critical for the use of a standard microbolometer array which typically has ~14msec time constant. Another key feature is the real-time radiometric correction that will occur during flight to account for the instrument and optics temperature changes during operation. This methodology is being utilized by DRS in commercial radiometers and will be implemented here to account for instrument/optics temperature changes and their contribution to radiometric error. This is a dramatic shift from prior radiometers built for earth observation in that those instruments typically cool the optics to reduce radiometric error. We envision a space instrument using 10 FPAs, with up to 12 spectral filters to cover a ground swath width of 310km from a 705km altitude orbit and a 100m GSD. For this airborne demo we plan to utilize 4 FPAs with 8 spectral band filters to demonstrate the key technology within the more limited IIP program budget. For an airborne demo, using 120mm EFL f/1 optics at 15,000ft altitude, will have a 0.65m GSD with two parallel swath widths of 414km separated by a gap of 619m. We will show direct applicability to a space instrument and how it is easily scalable using a stagger butted array approach. Much of the same hardware could be utilized on a space version of this instrument. Period of performance of this IIP project is expected to be 36 months. The first year of the program will involve the design of the instrument hardware, the second year will be the build of the components integration and assembly of the instrument and the third year will be laboratory test of the instrument and airborne field testing. Entry level TRL for this instrument is 3; exit level TRL at the end of year 3 will be 6.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:07:19.000Z
This is the Northern Kentucky University Co-I proposal to request continued NASA support for the on-going Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) project. The balloon-borne CREAM instrument was flown for ~161 days in six flights over Antarctica, the longest known exposure for a single balloon project. Building on the success of those balloon missions, one of the two balloon payloads was successfully transformed for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS) Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF). Following completion of its system-level qualification and verification, this ISS-CREAM payload was delivered to the NASA Kennedy Space Center in August 2015 to await its launch to the ISS. The ISS-CREAM mission would achieve the primary science objectives of the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS), which was given high priority in the 2001 NRC Decadal Study Report. Its nuclei composition data between 10^12 and 10^15 eV would enable detailed study of the spectral hardening first reported by the CREAM balloon project and recently confirmed for protons and helium by the PAMELA and AMS-02 space missions using permanent magnet spectrometers. In addition, multi-TeV energy electron data allow searches for local sources and the signature of darkmatter, etc. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with redundant and complementary particle detectors capable of precise measurements of elemental spectra for Z = 1 - 26 nuclei, as well as electrons. The four layers of its finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector provide charge measurements, and its ionization calorimeter provides energy measurements. Its segmented scintillator-based Top and Bottom Counting Detectors separate electrons from nuclei using shower profile differences. Its Boronated Scintillator Detector distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The ISS-CREAM launch is currently manifested on SpaceX-12, which is scheduled for April 2017. It is expected to accumulate a total of > 4.5 years exposure during the grant period. The study of cosmic accelerators supports the Science Mission Directorate's Goal for Astrophysics in NASA's 2010 Science Plan, "Discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and evolved, and search for Earth-like planets." It specifically addresses the Science Question, "How do matter, energy, space and time behave under the extraordinarily diverse conditions of the cosmos?"