- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T15:53:30.000Z
A robust flow control method promising significantly increased performance and virtual shape control for natural laminar flow (NLF) sections is proposed using a novel momentum porting concept. Significant aerodynamic, systems, and control benefits are possible through the integration of virtual aerodynamic shaping technology into modern aircraft. Virtual aerodynamic shaping involves using flow control technology to manipulate the flow field to achieve a desired result regardless of the geometry. A high-payoff approach to significantly increased air vehicle performance is the use of a novel momentum porting concept for the virtual shaping of extended run natural laminar flow sections. The objective of this research is to incorporate a robust and simple tangential pulsed jet blowing system that requires no external air to design and virtually shape an extended natural laminar flow section offering radical performance enhancement in the form of increased lift-to-drag and maximum lift. Additionally, the system will produce a wing design enabling a hinge-less, full-span virtual shaping capability which can be used for fully pilot reactive roll control, span load tailoring, and gust load alleviation. The system will provide significantly enhanced performance for the air vehicle throughout the entire flight envelope.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T05:22:52.000Z
The data set lists orbital and physical properties for well-observed or suspected binary/multiple minor planets including the Pluto system, as inspired by Richardson and Walsh (2006) and similar reviews (Merline et al., 2003; Noll, 2006; Pravec et al., 2006; Pravec and Harris, 2007; Descamps and Marchis, 2008; Noll et al., 2008; Walsh, 2009). In total 242 companions in 229 systems are included. Data are presented in three tables: one for orbital and physical properties; one for companion designations, discovery information, and reference codes for data values; and one giving full references for each reference code. This data set is complete for binary/multiple components reported through 31 March 2013.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:16:19.000Z
As humankind seeks to reach Mars and beyond, advancement of electric propulsion (EP) will be a key factor in the pursuit of deep-space exploration. EP uses acceleration methods (electrostatic and electromagnetic), which do not rely on the conversion of heat to kinetic energy. Thus, EP achieves higher specific impulses than chemical propulsion through the acceleration of ionized particles. Among EP devices, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to enable ambitious exploration missions to Mars and beyond. Despite their potential advantages, MPD thrusters have not demonstrated efficiencies near theoretical predictions, which may be due to the 'anode fall' and 'onset' phenomena. The proposed work is to investigate an MPD thruster with a suitable magnetic nozzle that can overcome the limitations imposed by anode fall and onset by controlling the field properties of the plasma in appropriate region of the nozzle and discharge chamber. Computational modeling provides a detailed understanding of the complex physical mechanisms. Improved magnetohydrodynamics models compared to experimental data will provide in-depth understanding of the limiting factors in the MPD thruster and useful insights for an optimal nozzle design. Finally, the proposed nozzle design will be tested numerically and experimentally. The proposed work will improve the overall efficiency of the thruster, critically aid in the development and characterization of next generation MPD thrusters, and contribute to advancing EP for more distant and critical space missions in the future.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:48:16.000Z
<p>In spite of our best efforts to minimize the amount of disposable supplies (and the associated packaging) used during space missions, the accumulation of solid wastes is an inevitable consequence of mission activity. That waste will occupy precious cargo or living space within the habitat unless it is properly managed. Converting solid wastes to an energy source presents a potential solution to this problem. Waste-to-energy (WTE) presents a viable solution to this problem in that the solid wastes can be converted into an energy source for use during a mission. Because this fuel is generated using available resources, it significantly offsets the initial mission logistics requirements, and provides several operational benefits and opportunities. WTE also addresses several terrestrial challenges related to our energy needs, environmental conservation, and our need to more efficiently use land resources. This study will produce a detailed chemical and thermodynamic model of a deep-space exploration waste stream. The model will be used in designing technologies for WTE systems within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program and can also provide a starting point for commercial WTE systems.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:21:22.000Z
Prognostics performance evaluation has gained significant attention in the past few years. *As prognostics technology matures and more sophisticated methods for prognostic uncertainty management are developed, a standardized methodology for performance evaluation becomes extremely important to guide improvement efforts in a constructive manner. This paper is in continuation of previous efforts where several new evaluation metrics tailored for prognostics were introduced and were shown to effectively evaluate various algorithms as compared to other conventional metrics. Specifically, this paper presents a detailed discussion on how these metrics should be interpreted and used. Several shortcomings identified, while applying these metrics to a variety of real applications, are also summarized along with discussions that attempt to alleviate these problems. Further, these metrics have been enhanced to include the capability of incorporating probability distribution information from prognostic algorithms as opposed to evaluation based on point estimates only. Several methods have been suggested and guidelines have been provided to help choose one method over another based on probability distribution characteristics.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-08-02T15:25:23.000Z
Our mission archetype is exploration of hazardous, non-planar terrain, such as Martian caves or icy crevasses on Europa. Clusters of SPEARS sensors will be used to gather scientific measurements over a wide area. The major objective of this study is to demonstrate general feasibility of the concept and to make inroads in a few crucial technology bottlenecks. Experimentation with an early terrestrial prototype will demonstrate viability of core ideas and assist in evangelism. We will leverage existing test facilities, like our planetary roverscape, to provide great value relative to funding level. Lastly, analysis of SPEARS architecture in the context of possible future missions will ground this work for NASA relevance. A study in projectile payload selection will be performed, considering environmental and optical sensors. Strategies for anchoring, localization, and comms will be surveyed. Various thrust modalities (e.g. compressed gas vs. mechanical) for the launcher system will also be compared. Most critically, several automated multi-sensor data fusion techniques providing image stabilization, panoramic stitching, and 3D mapping (several of which this team has pioneered) will be evaluated and demonstrated. This will be accomplished by the construction of a basic terrestrial proof-of-concept system comprised of a CO2 projectile launcher and 2-3 example projectiles such as a camera, illuminator, and radio beacon. Existing algorithms and software will be built upon to demonstrate processing techniques, and extensions implemented to meet observed challenges will directly advance the state of the art.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:47:49.000Z
This is a linked proposal from UCLA in support of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) mission in direct support of the lead proposal which has been submitted by Prof Peter W. Gorham of the University of Hawaii. ANITA seeks to detect and elucidate the sources of the highest energy particles in the universe via measurements of cosmogenic ultra-high energy neutrinos. Such neutrinos are in many cases predicted to be the only unattenuated astrophysical messengers that arrive at Earth with precise directional information, since neutrinos are neutral particles with very weak interactions with matter in intergalactic space. Neutrinos that ANITA seeks to detect will signal the presence of the most extreme astrophysical accelerators and environments, and complement the information available via electromagnetic messengers from gamma-rays to radio waves. ANITA uses a long-duration balloon payload equipped with 48 dual-polarization horn antennas to detect radio impulses in the frequency range 200-1200 MHz, within which the properties of cold Antarctic ice include extreme radio-transparency and depths of up to 4 km. If a neutrino interacts anywhere within the ice sheet in ANITA's view from stratospheric altitudes, we can detect the emerging radio impulse and determine its direction and other characteristics with high precision. This in turn allows us to select candidate neutrinos from among the thermal and anthropogenic backgrounds with high confidence, and to derive angular information about the arrival direction of such candidates as well. Recently ANITA analysis investigated a new detection channel, which focuses on tau-lepton-generating neutrinos, which lead to a unique experimental signature for which ANITA has potentially very high sensitivity, and a candidate event has been detected in prior data. This new detection channel has added to the variety of methods by which ANITA continues to improve its sensitivity and reach into predicted models for cosmogenic neutrinos, for which ANITA has among the best constraints of any detector to date. ANITA is currently the only active NASA mission with the capability to measure ultra-high energy neutrinos, and ANITA's ultra-high energy neutrino sensitivity while on orbit is unmatched by any other instrument, ground- or space-based. As such it is a direct contributor to our understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe, through astrophysical messengers that provide unique information about the most extreme and energetic objects in the cosmos.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:49:57.000Z
Traditional SAR imaging at millimeter wave frequencies can provide excellent, high SNR, 3D images of features inside dielectric solids. However, imaging at these frequencies requires thousands of measurements; raster scanning for data collection is time consuming; and data analysis and image rendering requires additional time. These limitations make millimeter wave SAR imaging for nondestructive evaluation prohibitive outside the lab. We propose to show feasibility of overcoming these restrictions by designing a real-time, high-resolution, portable and 3D imaging system for terrestrial and in-space inspection applications. We will demonstrate ability to produce high-fidelity 3D images from substantially reduced data with minimal image quality degradation. We will also investigate further enhancements via spectral estimation or compressive sensing techniques. In Phase I we will design an adaptive, custom sampled, SAR-based millimeter wave imaging system for nondestructive inspection of complex composites and structures. The design of this imaging system will be based on novel and substantial innovations to a well establish knowledge base. The innovations involve overcoming hardware and software limitations that currently make 3D imaging at millimeter wave frequencies slow, cumbersome and impractical for widespread use. Our goal is to design a system with: center frequency in the millimeter wave range; significant bandwidth; high-spatial and range resolutions; rapid image data collection; real-time image rendering; ability to image multi-layer structures made of different materials; high system dynamic range (high detection sensitivity); electrical and mechanical design allowing adaptation to use in-space; modular and frequency-scalablity to accommodate large structures; user friendly design to allow operation by people of various skill sets. The Phase I effort will include simulations and small-scale testing.
Voluntary Consensus Organization Standards for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aerospace Materials (including Additive Manufactured Parts)data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:54:27.000Z
<p>This NASA-industry effort accomplishes the following:</p><p>1) Lead collaboration between NASA Centers, other government agencies, industry, academia, and voluntary census organizations (ASTM Committees E07 on Nondestructive Testing, F42 on Additive Manufacturing (AM) Technologies, and ISO Technical Committee (TC) 261) to develop national standards for NDE of aerospace materials used in NASA/aerospace applications.</p><p>2) Lead a leveraged interlaboratory study (ILS) to develop NDE for qualification and certification of AM parts.</p><p>3) Lead ASTM E07 development and periodic revision of flat panel polymer matrix composite (PMC) standards: ASTM E2533 (Guide) , E2580 (ultrasonic testing (UT) , E2581 (shearography) , E2582 (flash thermography) , E2661 (acoustic emission) , E2662 (radiographic testing (RT)) , and draft work item WK40707 (active thermography).</p><p>4) Lead periodic revision of composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) standards: E2981 (overwrap)  and ASTM E2982 (liner) .</p><p>5) Develop a new NDE of AM Guide (ASTM WK47031) .</p><p>6) Develop a new eddy current test (ECT)-UT-profilometer standard practice or test method for fracture control of metal parts using 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD) of critical initial flaws sizes in metal parts (TBD).</p><p>7) Respond to NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) requests as needed (e.g., AM, advanced manufacturing, counterfeit parts and ESA/JAXA collaboration).</p><p>The historical standards development time line (Items 3 through 6) is shown in <strong>Figure 1</strong>. The WK47031 effort (Item 5) constitutes the bulk of the present focus and capitalizes on momentum created by the release of the FY14 <em>Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing</em> <em>State-of-the-Discipline Report </em>(NASA-TM-218560) . The ultimate goal vis-à-vis WK47031 is to determine the effect-of-defect of specific seeded flaw types while determining detection thresholds using controlled embedded features. A portion of this effort also dovetails with the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Universal ECT-UT-Profilometer Scanner project.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> One of the main obstacles slowing the acceptance and use of advanced materials (e.g., PMCs, COPVs and AM parts) in NASA and commercial space applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems, including sensitive NDE procedures with well-defined accept-reject criteria. Matching VCO standards are also needed to ensure process and equipment control, finished part quality and consistent inspection methodologies for finished parts after manufacturing and after installation of parts in service. In AM, the possibility to ‘design to constraint’ offers a paradigm shift opening the door to make parts with shorter production lead times, less waste, improved cost, maximized properties, and reduced weight. However, to fully realize the merits of this and other advanced processing technologies, and to ensure parts of the highest quality end up in NASA/aerospace applications, new approaches to for in-situ monitoring NDE used during manufacturing, post-process NDE used on as-build and finished parts are needed. In AM, for example, NDE procedures must be able to detect flaw types (<strong>Figure 2</strong>), many of which are not found in cast, wrought or conventionally welded parts (<strong>Figure 3</strong>). Deeply embedded porosity, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features (e.g., lattice structures) impose additional challenges on conventional NDE.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Technical Approach: </strong> In the WK47031 effort (<strong>Figure 4</strong>), a NASA-led interlaboratory study (ILS) is currently being conducted to identify and refine NDE for inspection of AM aerospace parts. This effort is spread across g
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T22:59:10.000Z
The operating conditions of conventional multijunction solar cells are severely limited by the current matching requirements of serially connected devices. The goal of this SBIR program is to enhance the operating tolerance of high efficiency III-V solar cells by employing nanostructured materials in an advanced device design. By using quantum wells and quantum dots embedded in a higher band gap barrier material, solar cell devices that avoid the limitations of current matching can be constructed. This Phase I effort will focus on quantifying the trade-offs between short circuit current and open circuit voltage in InGaP / InGaAs nanostructures. Ultimately, the technical approach employed in this program has the potential of achieving conversion efficiencies exceeding 50% with a single p-n junction device, enabling improved overall performance and lower manufacturing costs than existing technologies.