Lunar Volatiles Extraction Technology for Future Fusion Power and Multi-Outpost Scale Human Space Explorationdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:43:44.000Z
The proposal is for the development of a prototype lunar volatiles extraction system the will demonstrate a process for acquiring helium-3 and volatile gases that can be used for life support. Helium-3 could be used in future fusion reactors that would produce no radioactive waste. The process of acquiring helium-3 produces far more life supporting volatile gases than helium-3, and incorporates many of the technologies that may be required in the future for supporting multiple in space outposts from lunar resources. The prototype system will be based on a past lunar volatiles miner design, developed at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute, and will be a scaled down version that will investigate issues of system optimization for volatile production, component degradation due to continuous exposure to regolith simulant and thermal energy efficiency of the prototype's heat pipe heater system.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T04:57:07.000Z
This data set contains the data from the Galileo dust detector system (GDDS) from start of mission through the end of mission. Included are the dust impact data, noise data, laboratory calibration data, and location and orientation of the spacecraft and instrument.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:25:18.000Z
The development of advanced methods for Microwave Enhanced Freeze Drying of Solid Waste (MEFDSW) is proposed. Methods for the recovery of relatively pure water as a byproduct of freeze drying will also be fully developed. The Phase II project will result in the design, assembly, thorough testing, and delivery of a technology demonstrator prototype which may be employed over a broad range of mission scenarios. The prototype system will recover water initially contained within the wastes and stabilize the residue with respect to microbial growth. The dry waste may then be safely stored or passed on to the next solid waste treatment process. Using microwave power in a closed microwave cavity, water-ice present in the frozen solid waste can be selectively and rapidly heated. This results in a more energy efficient lyophilization process, and therefore hardware based upon this technology will have a lower Equivalent System Mass (ESM) than currently available systems.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:16:03.000Z
As the amount of textual information grows explosively in various kinds of business systems, it becomes more and more desirable to analyze both structured data records and unstructured text data simultaneously. Although online analytical processing (OLAP) techniques have been proven very useful for analyzing and mining structured data, they face challenges in handling text data. On the other hand, probabilistic topic models are among the most effective approaches to latent topic analysis and mining on text data. In this paper, we study a new data model called topic cube to combine OLAP with probabilistic topic modeling and enable OLAP on the dimension of text data in a multidimensional text database. Topic cube extends the traditional data cube to cope with a topic hierarchy and stores probabilistic content measures of text documents learned through a probabilistic topic model. To materialize topic cubes efficiently, we propose two heuristic aggregations to speed up the iterative Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for estimating topic models by leveraging the models learned on component data cells to choose a good starting point for iteration. Experimental results show that these heuristic aggregations are much faster than the baseline method of computing each topic cube from scratch. We also discuss some potential uses of topic cube and show sample experimental results.
Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:34.000Z
TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and bone loss and to improve the overall wellness of astronauts operating in microgravity. The DART will be able to provide resistive loads up to 350 lbf and will accurately simulate the load profile of a mass in a 1-g environment. It will also be capable of applying custom load profiles such as eccentric overloading. In aerobic training mode, the DART will simulate the loads of a rowing machine with loads up to 175. The system will computer-controlled and can automatically calibrate to a user's range of motion. The total weight of the device will be less than 20 lbs and have a compact form factor to enable integration into a small crew module. By using a regenerative energy recovery system, the average power consumption of the DART will be less than 100 W during an exercise session. TDA is able to build on previous experience building exercise equipment for NASA and develop the DART in a short timeframe. TDA will prove the feasibility of providing effective aerobic and resistive training with a single device that is lightweight and compact in Phase I. At the end of Phase I a prototype will be delivered to NASA for evaluation. In Phase II we will advance the technology and provide the second generation prototype to NASA for testing on the International Space Station.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:30:17.000Z
Mars planetary surface access is one of NASA's biggest technical challenges involving advanced entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technologies and methods. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project intends to solve one of the top challenges for landing large payloads and humans on Mars by using advanced atmospheric In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) methods that have never been tried or studied before. The proposed Mars Molniya Orbit Atmospheric Resource Mining concept mission architecture will make Mars travel routine and affordable for cargo and crew, therefore enabling the expansion of human civilization to Mars.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:43:40.000Z
The semiconductor material InAlAs has the potential to improve upon current space photovoltaics in a number of ways. InAlAsSb lattice-matched to InP would operate as the top cell in a triple-junction design with an AM0 efficiency of 37.1%, a cell-level mass specific power >1000 W/kg, and panel-level mass specific power of 662 W/kg. Development of InAlAs for engineered substrates would result in a lattice-matched triple-junction cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 efficiency of 40.4%. Additionally, InAlAs lattice-matched to InP has the appropriate bandgap for operation in low-intensity low-temperature conditions. Development of these proposed photovoltaic cells is particularly warranted since the InP materials system is known to be exceptionally radiation tolerant, which is ideal for space operation. Furthermore, lattice-matched cells are lighter and more mechanically stable than their metamorphic counterparts. The technology proposed in this application would increase capability and durability for missions needing onboard power or electric propulsion, and would also correspond to technology gains for terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic systems. The materials proposed in this study have undergone little to no development. Development of these materials would occur via semiconductor growth methods of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy or molecular beam epitaxy. Growth conditions such as temperature, gaseous precursors, and gas ratios can be adjusted to target desired material properties. This research would initially focus on materials development. Once the desired material are grown, they can then be fabricated in complete photovoltaic cells and tested for radiation and temperature tolerance which are important considerations for space applications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-20T07:23:36.000Z
Accurate measurement of atmospheric parameters with high resolution needs advanced lasers. In this SBIR program we propose to develop innovative Q-switched high power 2-micron fiber laser with pulse energy greater than 10mJ, repetition rate of 10Hz to 1KHz, and pulse duration of 200ns using innovative highly efficient Tm-doped glass fiber. This new fiber laser will be an all-fiber laser system consisting of actively Q-switched fiber laser and fiber amplifiers. This proposed all-fiber laser system is compact, highly efficient, robust and highly reliable, which is especially suited for NASA's application where operating environment is always extremely rough. In Phase I we will design and fabricate Tm-doped glasses, design and fabricate single mode and double cladding single mode Tm-doped fibers, and demonstrate Q-switched single frequency 2-micron fiber laser and amplifiers.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:48:46.000Z
<p>Frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. This technology project seeks to develop a prototype of a real-time location system integrated with a CO2 sensor to monitor and correlate space-time-CO2 concentration with physical symptoms and functional evaluations of impairment. The CO2 sensor will be integrated with a low-power ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system with location-tracking capability. Although the initial development is oriented to the measurement of CO2, the system concept can easily be adapted to accommodate other types of sensors. <p/><p>Recent findings indicate that frequent, short-term crew exposure to elevated CO2 levels combined with other physiological impacts of microgravity may lead to a number of detrimental effects, including loss of vision. To evaluate the risks associated with transient elevated CO2 levels and design effective countermeasures, doctors must have access to frequent CO2 measurements in the immediate vicinity of individual crew members along with simultaneous measurements of their location in the space environment. To achieve this goal, a small, low-power, wearable system that integrates an accurate CO2 sensor with an ultra-wideband (UWB) radio capable of real-time location estimation and data communication is proposed. This system would be worn by crew members and would automatically gather and transmit sampled sensor data tagged with real-time, high-resolution location information. Under the current proposed effort, a breadboard prototype of such a system will be developed. Although the initial effort is targeted to CO2 monitoring, the concept is applicable to other types of sensors. For the initial effort, existing EV Modular Instrumentation System (MIS) Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) hardware will be leveraged to integrate a low-power CO2 sensor with a commercially available UWB radio system with ranging capability. In addition, potential for integration of this system with EV's Electronic-textile System for the Evaluation of Wearable Technology (E-SEWT) will be evaluated.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-08-02T15:25:23.000Z
Our mission archetype is exploration of hazardous, non-planar terrain, such as Martian caves or icy crevasses on Europa. Clusters of SPEARS sensors will be used to gather scientific measurements over a wide area. The major objective of this study is to demonstrate general feasibility of the concept and to make inroads in a few crucial technology bottlenecks. Experimentation with an early terrestrial prototype will demonstrate viability of core ideas and assist in evangelism. We will leverage existing test facilities, like our planetary roverscape, to provide great value relative to funding level. Lastly, analysis of SPEARS architecture in the context of possible future missions will ground this work for NASA relevance. A study in projectile payload selection will be performed, considering environmental and optical sensors. Strategies for anchoring, localization, and comms will be surveyed. Various thrust modalities (e.g. compressed gas vs. mechanical) for the launcher system will also be compared. Most critically, several automated multi-sensor data fusion techniques providing image stabilization, panoramic stitching, and 3D mapping (several of which this team has pioneered) will be evaluated and demonstrated. This will be accomplished by the construction of a basic terrestrial proof-of-concept system comprised of a CO2 projectile launcher and 2-3 example projectiles such as a camera, illuminator, and radio beacon. Existing algorithms and software will be built upon to demonstrate processing techniques, and extensions implemented to meet observed challenges will directly advance the state of the art.