Lunar Volatiles Extraction Technology for Future Fusion Power and Multi-Outpost Scale Human Space Explorationdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:43:44.000Z
The proposal is for the development of a prototype lunar volatiles extraction system the will demonstrate a process for acquiring helium-3 and volatile gases that can be used for life support. Helium-3 could be used in future fusion reactors that would produce no radioactive waste. The process of acquiring helium-3 produces far more life supporting volatile gases than helium-3, and incorporates many of the technologies that may be required in the future for supporting multiple in space outposts from lunar resources. The prototype system will be based on a past lunar volatiles miner design, developed at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute, and will be a scaled down version that will investigate issues of system optimization for volatile production, component degradation due to continuous exposure to regolith simulant and thermal energy efficiency of the prototype's heat pipe heater system.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T04:57:07.000Z
This data set contains the data from the Galileo dust detector system (GDDS) from start of mission through the end of mission. Included are the dust impact data, noise data, laboratory calibration data, and location and orientation of the spacecraft and instrument.
Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:34.000Z
TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and bone loss and to improve the overall wellness of astronauts operating in microgravity. The DART will be able to provide resistive loads up to 350 lbf and will accurately simulate the load profile of a mass in a 1-g environment. It will also be capable of applying custom load profiles such as eccentric overloading. In aerobic training mode, the DART will simulate the loads of a rowing machine with loads up to 175. The system will computer-controlled and can automatically calibrate to a user's range of motion. The total weight of the device will be less than 20 lbs and have a compact form factor to enable integration into a small crew module. By using a regenerative energy recovery system, the average power consumption of the DART will be less than 100 W during an exercise session. TDA is able to build on previous experience building exercise equipment for NASA and develop the DART in a short timeframe. TDA will prove the feasibility of providing effective aerobic and resistive training with a single device that is lightweight and compact in Phase I. At the end of Phase I a prototype will be delivered to NASA for evaluation. In Phase II we will advance the technology and provide the second generation prototype to NASA for testing on the International Space Station.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:45:18.000Z
<p>A new type of MLI—Integrated Multi-Layer Insulation (IMLI)—uses rigid, low-conductivity polymer spacers instead of netting to keep the radiation barriers separated. In addition to making the material stiff enough to support itself and advanced thermal shields, the spacers reduce the amount of heat leak to the tank. This project aims to perform ground testing to validate thermal and structural performance of Integrated Multi-Layer Insulation (IMLI).<p/><p>IMLI coupons have been outperforming traditional MLI. IMLI has better thermal performance—with some insulating properties improved by up to 37 percent (and analysis indicates that this could grow to 73 percent for a full system). IMLI reduces system uncertainty in thermal performance and lowers fabrication and installation costs. In addition, it has a more durable structure and was not damaged by the high acoustic noise levels associated with launching on a rocket. In 2013, the project conducted two tests with IMLI blankets applied to storage tanks: a thermal test and an acoustic test. The tests will have already been completed with traditional MLI. NASA Glenn conducted the thermal test in its Small, Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF), which simulates the vacuum and temperature extremes of space. The researchers tested IMLI that is supporting a Broad Area Cooling shield actively cooled by a cryocooler to see if IMLI can be used for the long-duration storage of liquid hydrogen with reduced boil-off. NASA Marshall conducted the acoustic test, subjecting an IMLI blanket and shield identical to those used in the SMiRF tests to the vibrations and noise levels experienced during launch on a rocket. Use of this new insulation system supports NASA's goal to achieve zero boil-off, which would help enable longduration missions as NASA develops new capabilities for human space exploration. On Earth, this superinsulation may one day be used in homes and factories—reducing energy usage and furthering NASA's mission to drive advances in science that benefit everyone. </p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T17:56:25.000Z
Regression problems on massive data sets are ubiquitous in many application domains including the Internet, earth and space sciences, and finances. In many cases, regression algorithms such as linear regression or neural networks attempt to fit the target variable as a function of the input variables without regard to the underlying joint distribution of the variables. As a result, these global models are not sensitive to variations in the local structure of the input space. Several algorithms, including the mixture of experts model, classification and regression trees (CART), and others have been developed, motivated by the fact that a variability in the local distribution of inputs may be reflective of a significant change in the target variable. While these methods can handle the non-stationarity in the relationships to varying degrees, they are often not scalable and, therefore, not used in large scale data mining applications. In this paper we develop Block-GP, a Gaussian Process regression framework for multimodal data, that can be an order of magnitude more scalable than existing state-of-the-art nonlinear regression algorithms. The framework builds local Gaussian Processes on semantically meaningful partitions of the data and provides higher prediction accuracy than a single global model with very high confidence. The method relies on approximating the covariance matrix of the entire input space by smaller covariance matrices that can be modeled independently, and can therefore be parallelized for faster execution. Theoretical analysis and empirical studies on various synthetic and real data sets show high accuracy and scalability of Block-GP compared to existing nonlinear regression techniques.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T23:08:44.000Z
Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without leaking at 2,125 psi, within 3.5% of the predicted burst pressure. This SBIR will analyze, design, build, and test much lighter weight all composite cryogenic tanks and examine, develop, and test alternative insulation techniques to minimize boil-off. This SBIR will also examine the reuse of propellant tanks as crew and storage habitats. During Phase I, we will design and fabricate 12 10-inch diameter and 2 25-inch diameter cryogenic tanks with a design burst pressure of approximately 850 psi. Eight of the 10-inch tanks and one 25-inch tank will be thermally cycled and burst tested using liquid nitrogen to obtain statistical data. The remaining 4 10-inch tanks will first be thermally cycled, then flushed out and re-pressurized with gaseous helium to simulate reuse as a crew habitat. The remaining 25-inch tank will be delivered to NASA for further testing. Phase II will fabricate, build, and test larger tanks and tanks specifically intended to meet the needs of future NASA programs, and alternative insulation approaches will be evaluated to minimize boil-off.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:36:44.000Z
In NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan, Objective 1 specified the necessity to "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration". As a part of fulfilling this objective, the strategic plan aims to send a human mission to mars in the 2030s. The advancement of in-space propulsion technologies is essential in order to fulfill this objective. NASA's most recent In-Space Propulsion Systems Road Map (TABS 02) cites the need to develop technologies which "enable much more effective exploration of our Solar System". More effective in-space propulsion systems must be mission enabling as well as reduce transit times, increase payload mass, and decrease costs. For a human mars mission, the in-space propulsion of choice should be capable of high thrust levels and high specific impulse to reduce transit time. A non-chemical propulsion technology, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP), has been extensively tested in the United States and former Soviet Union. A NTP engine has the potential for twice the specific impulse of the best chemical engines (880 - 900 s) and 25 - 500 klbf thrust (100 - 2,200 kN). Thus, this technology is expected to reduce transit time and launch mass, therefore reducing mission costs. These attributes allow increased mission flexibility by increasing available payload mass and enabling longer stays on mars. Because of the unique advantages nuclear thermal propulsion can offer, in the National Resource Council's review of NASA's InSpace Propulsion Systems Roadmap, nuclear thermal propulsion was ranked as a high priority for in-space propulsion development. Under NSTRF15, the goal of this project is to aid the development of nuclear fuel forms for use in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). This will be completed through the identification and qualification of nuclear fuel form property data using non-nuclear testing. This data is essential in order to model fuel behavior and predict fuel performance as well as prepare nuclear fuel forms for eventual irradiation testing. Previous NTP programs (such as the NERVA/Rover program) took the approach of testing nuclear fuels through nuclear operation of a full scale reactor core. However, this methodology is costly and subject to stringent safety requirements. Recent research developments have shown that NTP fuel forms cannot be identically "re-captured" from past NTP programs because of the loss of manufacturing capabilities. Therefore, new manufacturing processes must be developed to mature fuel forms to be able to operate under the desired conditions for the NTR core and new property data must be obtained. Lessons learned from past NTP programs have shown that certain thermal and material properties of past NTP fuel forms directly correlate to the potential for successful NTR operation and high temperature performance. Since new manufacturing methods are needed for the development of NTP fuel forms, the thermal and material properties data archived from previous programs is not directly applicable for fuel performance simulations and the ultimate fuel selection process. The primary research objective of this project is to characterize a NTP fuel form which can withstand operating conditions of over 2800 K in a hot hydrogen environment. Secondary objectives will evaluate fuel performance at expected in-core vibration, pressure, and temperature gradients associated with operation. In order to meet project objectives, the methods of this project will consist of: 1) selection of fuel form chemistry and manufacturing processes, 2) Non-nuclear fuel testing and characterization of fuel material and thermal properties, and 3) Computational fuel modeling for expected operating conditions. NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center and affiliated research centers will provide the unique research facilities to ensure this project's success.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T17:25:22.000Z
NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base is a new 50,000 sq. ft. high-performance office building targeting a LEED Platinum rating. Plug loads are expected to account for a significant portion of overall energy consumption because building design choices resulted in greatly reduced energy demand from Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems, which are typically major contributors to energy consumption in traditional buildings. This paper reports on a pilot study where data from a variety of plug loads were collected in a reference office building to understand usage patterns, to make a preliminary assessment as to the effectiveness of controlling (i.e., turning off and on) selected loads, and to evaluate the utility of the plug load management system chosen for the study. Findings indicate that choosing energy efficient equipment, ensuring that power saving functionality is operating effectively, promoting beneficial occupant energy behavior, and employing plug load controls to turn off equipment when not in use can lead to significant energy savings. These recommendations will be applied to Sustainability Base and further studies of plug load management systems and techniques to reduce plug energy consumption will be pursued.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T22:50:28.000Z
The ADEPT project aims to improve the state-of-the-art with respect to capabilities and costs of scenario-based training in support of future space exploration missions at NASA. The key features of ADEPT will include: (1) a scenario-based intelligent tutoring system focused on the problem of training systems-operators on how to think through operational contingencies; (2) reliance on explicit representations of target mental models for the systems students are being trained to operate; (3) incorporation of an extensive authoring tool suite to lower costs of training development; and (4) use of multi-modal tutor-student dialog interaction to get at student decision rationale. Innovations include (a) a new instructional design methodology and supporting tools tuned to the demands of scenario-based contingency response training; (b) application of systems models to training in operations contingency reasoning as opposed to diagnosis or design; (c) development of tools that exploit systems models to support conceptual design of appropriate training scenarios, and development of interactive tutorial dialogs; and (d) attacking cost, quality, flexibility, and longevity issues through an overall training systems design (and project execution plan) emphasizing openness to integration of existing and future components such as simulators, user interfaces, and authoring tools.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:46:56.000Z
We propose the CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission to demonstrate wideband RFI mitigating backend technologies vital for future space-borne microwave radiometers. Recent passive microwave measurements below 40 GHz have shown an increase in the amount of man-made interference, corrupting geophysical retrievals in a variety of crucial science products, including soil moisture, atmospheric water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea surface winds, and many others. Spectrum for commercial use is becoming increasingly crowded, accelerating demand to open the bands reserved for passive microwave Earth observation and radio astronomy applications to general use. Due to current shared spectrum allocations, microwave radiometers must co-exist with terrestrial RFI sources. For example, the GPM Microwave Imager currently in orbit is impacted by RFI from commercial systems over both land and sea. As these sources expand over larger areas and occupy additional spectrum, it will be increasingly difficult to perform radiometry without an RFI mitigation capability. Co-existence in some cases should be possible provided that a subsystem for mitigation of RFI is included in future systems. Successful RFI mitigation will not only open the possibility of microwave radiometry in any RFI intensive environment, but will also allow future systems to operate over a larger bandwidth resulting in lower measurement noise. This crucial technology is required for the US to maintain a national capability for spaceborne microwave radiometry. Initial progress in RFI mitigation technologies for microwave radiometry has been achieved in the SMAP mission, which is currently operating in space a digital subsystem for this purpose in a 24 MHz bandwidth centered in the protected 1413 MHz band. RFI subsystems for higher frequency microwave radiometry over the range 6-40 GHz however require a larger bandwidth, so that the capabilities of RFI mitigation backends in terms of bandwidth and processing power must also increase. To date, no such wideband subsystem has been demonstrated in space for radiometers operating above 1413 MHz. The enabling technology is a digital Field-Programmable Gate Array-based spectrometer with a bandwidth of 1 GHz or more and capable of implementing advanced RFI mitigation algorithms such as the kurtosis and cross-frequency methods. This technology has a strong ESTO heritage, with the algorithms developed and demonstrated via the Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) and wideband backends developed under other ESTO support. The digital backend is currently at TRL 5, having been successfully tested in an RFI environment, and can be ported easily to a flight-ready firmware. Though the technology can be demonstrated for any frequency band from 1 to 40GHz, we will integrate the backend with a wideband radiometer operating over a 1 GHz bandwidth tunable from 6-40 GHz to demonstrate RFI detection and mitigation in important microwave radiometry bands. Along with a wideband dual-helical antenna, the payload will be integrated with a 6U CubeSat to demonstrate operation of the backend at TRL 7. The payload is expected to operate at a minimum duty-cycle of 25% to be compatible with spacecraft power capacity. Although the spatial resolution to be achieved will be coarse (due to the limited antenna size possible), the goal of demonstrating observation, detection, and mitigation of RFI is achievable in this configuration. The proposed demonstration will act as an immediate risk reduction of new technologies that are necessary for future Earth science missions. The technology will allow newly enabled measurements by operating in previously untenable spectral regions over larger bandwidths. The benefits from the above technology are directly relevant to all future microwave Earth science missions, such as SCLP, GMI follow on, SMAP follow on, and others.