- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:54:20.000Z
NASA seeks tailored airframes and structures to reduce structural mass in support of the NASA Aeronautics Strategic Implementation Plan (2015), following the Roadmap for Ultra-Efficient Commercial Vehicles, Subsonic Transport. Tailored structures are comprised of the right materials, at the right place, in the right orientation, in the right amount. Whatever the material or structural configuration, excess weight is driven out through optimization, within the limitations of the manufacturing approach. CRG has been laying the foundation for the design and production of tailored structures for more than a decade. CRG's vision for tailored airframes and structures begins with unitization, enabled by Smart Tooling for affordable manufacturing of complex composites. CRG began work on Smart Tooling for fuselages in 2005, targeting fully-integrated, single-process skins, stringers, and frames. CRG subsidiary Spintech launched in 2010 to commercialize Smart Tooling into the aerospace industry, and soon after demonstrated a quarter-scale unitized fuselage. Today, CRG brings robust capabilities in composite structural optimization, expanding capabilities in aerospace composite fabrication, leading-edge understanding of hybrid nano-composites, and Spintech's Smart Tooling technology to provide NASA with advanced, highly-tailored fuselage configurations with unmatched structural efficiency.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:08:36.000Z
Current and future programs of near-Earth and deep space exploration performed by NASA and Department of Defense require the development of reconfigurable, high-speed intra-satellite interconnect systems based on switching fabric active backplane architecture with high-speed serial interfaces. Electrical and/or optical transponders operating with Space Wire, Fire Wire, or Gigabit Ethernet protocols are required to support the associated data interconnects. The systems must be easily upgradeable, power-efficient, fault-tolerant, EMI-protected, and capable to operate effectively for long periods of time in harsh environmental conditions including radiation effects. To address the described needs, Advanced Science and Novel Technology Company proposes to develop a basic concept of the novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder, which will be implemented as a hermetically-sealed pigtailed multi-chip module with an FPGA-friendly parallel interface and will feature an improved radiation tolerance, high data rate, low power consumption, and advanced functionality. The transponder will utilize the company's patent-pending current-mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. 8B10B encoding will be used to achieve data disparity equal to 0 and perform a reliable clock recovery. The encoder and decoder will utilize the company's patented half-rate architecture that improves radiation tolerance. The proposed characteristics will be achieved by utilization of an advanced SiGe BiCMOS technology.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:36:13.000Z
<p>The Large Ultraviolet ,Visible, Optical, Infrared (LUVOIR) telescope concept is one of the NASA mission concept studies for the 2020 decadal study that will merge ultraviolet (UV) astrophysics and visible exoplanet science. This proposal aims at developing broadband reflecting mirror coatings with high performance that could be used on the primiary mirror of LUVOIR in order to enable wavelength coverage from the infrared and down to the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV) spectral regions. Improved reflective coatings for optics, particularly in the FUV region (90-120 nm), could yield dramatically more sensitive instruments and permit more instrument design freedom. The coating performance developed through this work will be evaluated both theoretically and experimentally in the context of meeting requirements for exoplanet research.</p><p>Pure Aluminum exhibits a high reflectance over the proposed spectral range of the LUVOIR observatory (90-5000 nm). However, the Al has to be protected from the naturally occurring Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> oxide layer (when exposed to oxygen) with a thin film of a transparent material for use below 130 nm. Aluminum protected with fluorides such as LiF or MgF<sub>2</sub> have been the most commonly used solutions . But below 102 nm down to 90 nm, no transparent material is available to protect Al and coating mirror reflectance stays well below 30%. But even above 102 nm, the reflectance of protected Al is limited by the residual absorption of the fluoride overcoats and the hygroscopic nature of the LiF overcoat. The low reflectivity of coatings in the Lyman Ultraviolet (LUV) range of 90-130 nm is one of the biggest constraints on FUV telescope and spectrograph design, and it limits the science return of FUV-sensitive space missions. In fact, to achieve high-reflectance in broadband coatings has been identified as an “Essential Goal” in the technology needs for the LUVOIR) surveyor observatory. Improved reflective coatings for optics, particularly in the LUV spectrum, could yield dramatically more sensitive instruments and permit more instrument design freedom. Furthermore, investigations in improving reflectance performance of coatings in this region has the potential to offer unprecedented return on investment given that the LUV contains the highest density of line observations in the UVVIS-IR spectrum. </p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:41:42.000Z
In the phase II effort, Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for benchmarking current and future high performance computing activities that will include: (1) dense and unsymmetrical matrix problems faced in space aviation and problems in thermally driven structural response and radiation exchange, (2) implicit solution algorithms with production models and benchmarks for indefinite matrices and pathological cases, (3) configurations scaling for large systems in shared, distributed and mixed memory conditions, (4) documentation for strengths, weaknesses, and limitations of the toolkits used together with recommendations and (5) precision and round-off studies on serial and parallel machines, comparison of solutions on serial and parallel hardware with study of wall clock performance with respect to the number of processors We successfully demonstrated in phase I that we can accurately and precisely benchmark run time solvers of dense complex matrices in hybrid-distributed memory architecture. We achieved highly scalable super-linear speed-up and scalability of the algorithm for large problem sizes. The tools developed in phase II will greatly improve the performance and efficiency to adapt the benchmarks to HPC systems different hardware architectures at NASA facilities and for non-NASA commercial applications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T11:01:51.000Z
Development of a nonlinear particle filter for engine performance is proposed. The approach employs NASA high-fidelity C-MAPSS40K engine model as the central element, and addresses the issue of lack of observability of some of the engine health parameters in previous Kalman filter formulations. Proposed approach does not require linearity of the dynamics or Gaussian noise assumptions for satisfactory operation. The feasibility of real-time implementation of the proposed approach will be demonstrated using commercial, off-the-shelf General Purpose Graphical Processing Units. Phase I feasibility demonstration will show that the particle filter formulation of the engine performance monitoring system can overcome the limitations of previously employed approaches. Phase II research will develop a prototype implementation for hardware-in-loop simulations and eventual flight test.
Revolutionize Propulsion Test Facility High-Speed Video Imaging with Disruptive Computational Photography Enabling Technologydata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:36:09.000Z
<p>Advanced rocket propulsion testing requires high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine flight certification ground testing. While it is important to assess all anomalies during testing, this is particularly true in the event of a mishap. The video recording in use today at NASA’s Stennis Space Center (SSC) is significantly outdated and in need of the revolutionary approach being proposed. The current system has poor resolution and records to VHS tapes that are no longer commercially available. The system has been partially upgraded by incorporating consumer grade digital cameras, but these cameras have significant limitations including plume saturation and on-board memory storage, which make it nearly impossible, in catastrophic situations that result in the loss of a camera, to obtain critical information. This project will design and build a state-of-the-art high-speed video recording system using disruptive technologies based on emerging advances made in the field of computational photography. This system will not only provide quality, high-speed, 3-D high dynamic range video to the SSC engine test complex, but the technologies developed will be extendable to other NASA priorities including launch monitoring and space-based rover and robotics missions. </p><p>This project will design and build a novel state-of-the-art high-speed video recording system to provide 3-D High Dynamic Range (HDR) video imagery for operational use on the SSC engine test stands. The system will leverage newly emerging algorithms being developed within the computational photography discipline. Computational photography expands digital photography by applying computational image capture, processing, and manipulation techniques to improve image quality. HDR imaging effectively increases a camera’s dynamic range and eliminates saturation. Juxtaposed with current imaging techniques, which often utilize either multiple cameras or a single camera with multiple exposure sequencing, the transformative approach will be implemented at the chip level using a single camera, which significantly reduces cost and implementation complexities. Three such cameras will provide multiple viewing, enabling high-speed 3-D HDR imagery, important for a more robust analysis.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:04:10.000Z
1. Original project aims/objectives: Back pain due to disk-herniation and space-adaptation is a serious concern for the health and wellbeing for astronauts. Current therapeutic drugs and devices to treat space travel related back pain are either systemically and/or cognitively dangerous for mission critical activities, ineffective, and/or non-renewable. The aims of this project were to evaluate long-duration ultrasound therapy as a therapeutic option to non-invasively and non-pharmaceutically effectively treat chronic low-back pain by reducing inflammation, muscle tightness, and modulating neuronal activation at the site of pain. Specifically, the project studied the use of a Food & Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared multi-hour prescription use sustained acoustic medicine device (sam Professional) as a solar-rechargeable therapeutic device to reduce pain, improve range of motion, and increase quality of life for patients with chronic low back pain. Additionally, the project included technology development of other ultrasonic frequencies and device form-factor that could prove useful in the space environment. 2. Key findings: The sam Professional medical device was determined to reduce pain by approximately 2 points on the 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale for patients with moderate to severe low back pain. In 65-subjects meeting study inclusion criteria, back pain was reduced by approximately 30% from baseline when the device was applied 5 times per week over 8 weeks of treatment. Patients in the study reported improved range of motion with less pain, and improved quality of life during daily activities. Analysis of the human subjects' data demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01) pain reduction for chronic back pain. The multi-hour ultrasound technology was further developed into a coin-sized form factor capable of multi-hour ultrasound delivery, and electronics/transducers were designed and tested for 1 MHz ultrasonic capability. Both clinical and technological project aims and objectives where successfully accomplished. 3. Impact of key findings on hypotheses, technology requirements, objectives and specific aims of the original proposal: The project found that multi-hour daily ultrasound therapy significantly reduced chronic back pain. This clinical study on 55-subjects provides additional clinical efficacy data on managing the symptoms of lower back pain with sam. When combined with other studies on the sam Professional device for back pain (approximately 120 patients in total) the therapeutic intervention is an available non-surgical/non-drug option for back pain patients. The technology is currently available on the US market for prescription use only. Additional electronic testing and validation of the devices would need to be conducted for space deployment. 4. Proposed research plan for the coming year: The project was successfully completed and no additional work is scheduled. The project team anticipates preparation of the key findings for clinical dissemination of the outcome data.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:42:10.000Z
<p>The harsh rocket propulsion test environment exposes any inadequacy associated with preexisting instrumentation technologies, can critically affect the collection of reliable test data, and justifies investigating any encountered data anomalies. Novel concepts for improved system assessments are often conceived during the high scrutiny investigations by individuals with an in-depth knowledge from maintaining critical test operations. The intelligent strain gauge concept developed for this project was conceived while performing these kinds of activities. Ordinary gauges are designed to provide test article data but they lack the ability to supply information concerning the gauge itself. Changes to the gauge bond integrity are observable in the thermal dissipation rate. A gauge is considered to be a "smart gauge" when it provides supplementary data relating Instrument attributes for performing diagnostic function or producing enhanced data. Accordingly, a gauge with the ability to temporarily self-heat and monitor the rate at which the thermal dissipation occurs can indicate a gauge debond. This project developed novel strain gauge designs that enabled the detection of gauge debonding, and provided for temperature compensation of strain measurements. The improvement to the gauge increased instrument functionality and data collection capability. Two types of fully functional smart strain gauges capable of performing reliable and sensitive debond detection were successfully produced. <p/><p>To improve instruments functionality in a harsh rocket propulsion test environment, this project developed an intelligent strain gauge. The initial design for this project was a novel foil strain gauge with the capability to measure strain and temperature (Type 1). The novel foil strain gauge pattern features the integration of a silicon-diode temperature sensor and a self-heating element. The silicon-diode sensor provides the gauge temperature for performing real-time temperature compensation algorithms. The silicon-diode temperature sensor was used in the initial gauge pattern due to its enhanced abilities, but after refinement, resistive temperature element was then embedded into a second gauge pattern (Type 2). Then, the debond detection function was tested by monitoring the temperature of the gauge while the gauge was heated and cooled. The temperature signature (rate of heating/cooling) from the gauge was analyzed for both bonded and debonded gauges. Finally, a small control circuit was created with the capability to self-execute a bond integrity check, and perform real-time temperature compensation was also added. By combining the control circuit with the special gauge the smart gauge was converted into a fully functioning intelligent sensor system.</p>
Application of Advanced Electromagnetic Arrays to High Efficiency, High Bandwidth, Redundant Linear Actuators, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:12:51.000Z
The proposed SBIR effort will employ a systems approach to develop motor/controller/screw element systems adequate for demanding launch thrust vector control and control surface actuator applications. This approach will utilize high bandwidth, high efficiency, redundant motor systems coupled with appropriately paired motor controls. The actuator system will consist of a high efficiency permanent magnet motor with a high number of current channels for system redundancy, an H-bridge based controller with a high number of parallel current channels and sufficient current capability to enable high system response, and conventional screw-based linear actuator elements. The linear actuation elements will be designed with corrosion resistance, increased resistance to nut jamming, and inherent features preventing incorrect installation of the device. These innovations are necessary to overcome the inherent limitations of today's actuator systems, which were developed based on the limitations of traditional motors, power electronics, and available actuator hardware. Phase I of this project will focus on the design requirements, key features, and suggested solutions for thrust vector control actuator systems. The Phase II portion of the project will deliver a working prototype actuator.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:11:43.000Z
Differential gene expression by RNA profiling is a universal and critical step in space biology experiments, which seek to link specific molecular events with disease phenotypes. Current RNA preparation methods are tedious, require substantial astronaut time, and necessitate exposure to toxic chemicals. They often have poor, unreliable yields due to RNase contamination. Our overall objective is to develop and commercialize a microfluidics based miniaturized platform (MED-RNA) that can fully automate the complex process of RNA extraction. Starting from harvested whole mammalian cells in a culture medium, MED-RNA will lyse, capture, extract/isolate and freeze/store RNA content for later analysis, in a fully integrated fashion with minimal user intervention. In addition to higher yields and faster process times, losses and contamination will be minimized as a result of the miniaturization and automation. A novel and unique plastic card based fabrication technology from Micronics Corp. will be leveraged for low-cost microfabrication. In Phase I, we will develop detailed design for the microfluidic lab card and the integrated system. We will also fabricate and demonstrate critical components (lysis and capture) of MED-RNA. The design process will be based on the state-of-the-art, multiphysics biochip design software from CFDRC. In Phase II, a fully integrated microfluidic lab card (including storage) will be developed and demonstrated on chosen cell lines.