- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T04:20:35.000Z
NASA's International Halley Watch (IHW) has created a Comet Halley Archive. The collection of data spans the full wavelength range as submitted by scientists to the IHW. The observations belong to one of the following Disciplines: Amateur, Astrometry, Infrared Studies, Large-Scale Phenomena, Meteor Studies, Near-Nucleus Studies, Photometry and Polarimetry, Radio Studies, and Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry. The data collected by these nine disciplines were augmented by Spacecraft measurements. The data were submitted to IHW, but the evaluation and selection for the Archive has been the primary responsibility of the Discipline Specialist Teams for each network in cooperation with the Lead Center. The Photometry and Polarimetry Network collected 132 observations for the Stokes Parameters Subnetwork. These data cover the date range from 1985 December 30 through 1986 April 16.
A Micro-Cylindrical Ion Trap (Âµ-CIT) Micro-Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (Âµ-MSIS) for NASA Planetary Explorationdata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-08-02T15:25:43.000Z
<p>The goal of this follow-on early stage innovation activity is to advance the development of new, extremely small, low power, and low cost “micro” mass spectrometer instrument systems (μMSIS) through the application of MEMS design and fabrication, and microsystem component integration and packaging, toward deployment on distributed planetary payload platforms. This work attains significant early impact due to our recently-awarded ASTID project (van Amerom et al.), to develop the core chip-based micro cylindrical ion trap (μ-CIT) mass analyzer at GSFC. In particular, this work will enable early, coincident design and development of the critical microsystem integration and packaging that is required to achieve the final level of miniaturization offered by this core μ-CIT technology. We therefore propose to develop a MEMS μMSIS packaging concept that is modular and flexible to further integration of a micro gas chromatograph, micro vacuum chamber and microelectronic components, into a complete instrument system.</p> <p>This activity will significantly increase the fidelity of the miniaturized component packaging of the μ-CIT mass spectrometer assembly. Our design approach emphasizes the smallest feasible footprint, combining MEMS MS component integration, and the use of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) materials. This activity will significantly increase the fidelity of the miniaturized component packaging of the μ-CIT mass spectrometer assembly. Our design approach emphasizes the smallest feasible footprint, combining MEMS MS component integration, and the use of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) materials and techniques for fabrication of the final package. Final package systems designs and component parts have been fabricated using micro fabrication capabilities and MEMS processing. Assembly and integration of the package takes advantage of existing packaging expertise, materials, and tooling. The component packaging system will be evaluated for form, function, outgassing, and vibration here at GSFC.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:29:02.000Z
Radiation-cooled, bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for the ascent/descent engines and reaction control systems for NASA missions such as Mars Sample Return and Orion MPCV. Currently, iridium-lined rhenium combustion chambers are the state-of-the-art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf iridium-rhenium chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, rhenium chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent EL-FormTM results have shown considerable promise for improving the mechanical properties of rhenium by producing a multi-layered deposit comprised of a tailored microstructure, i.e., Engineered Re. During Phase I, an AMBR size chamber was produced to demonstrate formation of the Engineered Re material in both the throat and barrel regions. Tensile tests showed the Engineered Re material had a yield strength greater than 40ksi at room temperature. In addition, Engineered Re deposits were produced on multiple mandrels at one time, i.e., multi-component process demonstration. During Phase II, the Engineered Re processing techniques will be optimized. Detailed characterization and mechanical properties test will be performed. Optimization of the multi-component fabrication technique will result in a 30% or higher reduction in chamber fabrication costs. The most promising techniques will be selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR size combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:30:17.000Z
Mars planetary surface access is one of NASA's biggest technical challenges involving advanced entry, descent, and landing (EDL) technologies and methods. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project intends to solve one of the top challenges for landing large payloads and humans on Mars by using advanced atmospheric In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) methods that have never been tried or studied before. The proposed Mars Molniya Orbit Atmospheric Resource Mining concept mission architecture will make Mars travel routine and affordable for cargo and crew, therefore enabling the expansion of human civilization to Mars.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:33:59.000Z
M4 Engineering proposes to implement physics-based, multidisciplinary analysis and optimization objects that will be integrated into a Python, open-source framework and used in a wide variety of simulations. The integrated objects will perform discipline-specific analysis across multiple flight regimes at varying levels of fidelity. The process will also deliver system-level, multi-objective optimization. Addressing physics-based, system-level objectives that span more than one discipline will have profound effects on improving decision-making abilities during the conceptual design phase when evaluating advanced technological concepts. In the proposed effort, existing capabilities will be leveraged to create a high fidelity, physics based, multidisciplinary analysis and optimization (MDAO) system. This proposed work will compliment M4 Engineering's expertise in developing modeling and simulation toolsets that solve relevant subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic demonstration applications.
Space PV Concentrators for Outer Planet and Near-Sun Missions, Using Ultra-Light Fresnel Lenses Made with Vanishing Tools, Phase Idata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:39:16.000Z
<p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><strong>Identification and Significance of the Innovation</strong></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">Under recent NASA SBIR, STTR, and other programs, our team has developed both line-focus and point-focus Fresnel lens PV concentrators with unprecedented performance and cost metrics. This new Phase I proposal addresses a remaining mass-production issue for the ultra-light lenses used in both line-focus and point-focus embodiments of the space PV concentrator technology. After casting the silicone lens, removing the lens tool is difficult, time-consuming, and often damaging to the lens. A vanishing lens tool would completely solve this problem, making high-quality, mass-producible, low-cost, ultra-light Fresnel lenses available for future space PV concentrators. These concentrators offer unrivaled benefits for outer planet and near-sun missions, especially in rad-hardness, LILT-tolerance, and HIHT-tolerance.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><strong>Technical Objectives, Work Plan, and Deliverables</strong></p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><strong>Technical Objectives:</strong> To (1) Select Candidate Vanishing Lens Tool Materials, (2) Procure Electroform Replicas of 25X Point-Focus Lens Pattern, (3) Produce Vanishing Lens Prototype Tools, (4) Produce and Inspect Lenses (Glass Superstrate and Mesh), (5) Outdoor-Test Best Lenses for Optical Efficiency, (6) Select Best Vanishing Lens Tool Material, (7) Produce 10 Prototype Vanishing Lens Tools, (8) Produce and Outdoor-Test 10 Lenses, (9) Explore Mass Production of Vanishing Lens Tools from Selected Material with Vendors, (10) Prepare Technology Development Roadmap for Phase II and Beyond, (11) Provide All Required Reports, Reviews, and Deliverables.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><strong>Work Plan</strong>: Over a 6-month performance period, we will perform 11 tasks linked directly to the 11 objectives.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in"><strong>Deliverables:</strong> 3 Program Reviews, 2 Program Reports, 10 Lenses (5 Glass Superstrate + 5 Embedded Mesh), and Phase II Proposal</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:52:35.000Z
<p>This multi-year IRAD proposal, in a strategic partnership with University of Maryland (UMD) and Bowie State University (BSU), creates a collaborative virtual reality (VR) tool for concept design and assembly in VR from a database of pre-defined "parts", enabling engineers and scientists to work in a shared VR environment, as part of a concept design or pre-phase A proposal process. The proposal will define a domain agnostic database for specifying a set of physical, off-the-shelf, plug and play parts with reduced detail shape/CAD files and migrate existing domain-specific GSFC database(s) to this format, to quickly realize a collaborative, model-based VR engineering environment for prototyping, assembly mockup, and visualizations for pre-phase A work.</p><p>This proposal will create a collaborative VR environment for early stage design and assembly of hardware projects from pre-defined, off-the-shelf parts as part of a concept design or pre-phase A proposal process. The project will:</p><ul><li>Create a database of metadata about parts</li><li>Create a collaborative VR environment where users<ul><li>Visualize a complete project design composed of off-the-shelf parts at real-world scales (or user-selected scales) and at any orientation</li><li>View and select off the shelf parts, and drag-and-drop them into a design</li><li>Layout and orient parts including alignment and mounting holes</li><li>Use virtual tools to determine tool paths and whether the model can be assembled in the real world without expensive manufacturing, physical prototypes or 3D printing</li></ul></li><li>Export projects as documents with assembly information and pictures at a level appropriate for pre-phase A proposals</li></ul><p>The VR environment can also help the downstream process with communication and planning between scientists and engineers in the Mission Design Lab (MDL) or for educational outreach. The first year will culminate in an alpha app for mechanical engineers for concept design and assembly mockups.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-20T07:19:34.000Z
We will design and formally verify a VLIW processor that is radiation-hardened, and where the VLIW instructions consist of predicated RISC instructions from the PowerPC 750 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). The PowerPC 750 ISA is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750 flight-control computer that is utilized in many NASA space missions, including Deep Impact, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Rovers, and is planned to be used in the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The VLIW processor will have reconfigurable functional units and specialized instructions that will be optimized for Software Defined Radio applications. The radiation-hardening will be done at the microarchitectural level with a mechanism that will allow the detection and correction of all timing errors---caused not only by radiation, but also by variations in the voltage, frequency, manufacturing process, and aging of the chip. The binary-code compatibility of the resulting VLIW processors with the PowerPC 750 ISA will allow them to seamlessly execute legacy binary code from previous space missions. We have made critical contributions to the fields of formal verification of complex pipelined microprocessors, and Boolean Satisfiability (SAT), and have developed highly efficient Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools that we will use.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:43:40.000Z
The semiconductor material InAlAs has the potential to improve upon current space photovoltaics in a number of ways. InAlAsSb lattice-matched to InP would operate as the top cell in a triple-junction design with an AM0 efficiency of 37.1%, a cell-level mass specific power >1000 W/kg, and panel-level mass specific power of 662 W/kg. Development of InAlAs for engineered substrates would result in a lattice-matched triple-junction cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 efficiency of 40.4%. Additionally, InAlAs lattice-matched to InP has the appropriate bandgap for operation in low-intensity low-temperature conditions. Development of these proposed photovoltaic cells is particularly warranted since the InP materials system is known to be exceptionally radiation tolerant, which is ideal for space operation. Furthermore, lattice-matched cells are lighter and more mechanically stable than their metamorphic counterparts. The technology proposed in this application would increase capability and durability for missions needing onboard power or electric propulsion, and would also correspond to technology gains for terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic systems. The materials proposed in this study have undergone little to no development. Development of these materials would occur via semiconductor growth methods of metal organic vapor phase epitaxy or molecular beam epitaxy. Growth conditions such as temperature, gaseous precursors, and gas ratios can be adjusted to target desired material properties. This research would initially focus on materials development. Once the desired material are grown, they can then be fabricated in complete photovoltaic cells and tested for radiation and temperature tolerance which are important considerations for space applications.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-20T07:03:40.000Z
This proposal offers to provide NASA with an automatic mesh generator for the simulation of aerodynamic flows using Reynolds-Averages Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. The tools will be capable of generating high-quality, highly-stretched (anisotropic) grids in boundary layer regions and transition smoothly to inviscid flow regions even in an adaptive context. The objective of the work is to offer a unified view for generating quality and robust RANS meshes coupled naturally with anisotropic mesh adaptation. Our innovation is to view the anisotropic mesh generation within the Riemannian metric framework which thus far has been used exclusively in anisotropic mesh adaptation. Using the metric-based framework allows much easier handling of the large mesh size ratios involved in the computation, whereas traditional methods use the Euclidean framework to compute distance and volume. This innovative view to generate these meshes makes the entire procedure more generic and much more robust. The emphasis is being put on deriving a completely automatic process to generate quality and robust anisotropic meshes. Our existing and proven software package will be modified to include these innovative methods. A NASA test case will be computed for validation of the methods. The software will be delivered in Phase II.