- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-05T23:05:09.000Z
<p>Develop barrier infrared detector technology for the nation’s needs in high-performance SWIR (short-wavelength infrared), MWIR (mid-wavelength infrared), and LWIR (long-wavelength infrared) imaging focal plane arrays (FPAs).</p><p>Under the enhanced barrier infrared detector and focal plane array project we are developing a compatible family of high-performance SWIR (short-wavelength infrared), MWIR (mid-wavelength infrared), and LWIR (long-wavelength infrared) detectors for focal plane array (FPA) applications. The barrier infrared detectors features infrared absorbers with adjustable cutoff wavelengths. They make use of the unipolar barrier device architecture in which the unipolar barriers serve to reduce generation-recombination dark current, but allow the un-impeded collection of photo-generated carriers. The high-performance, cost-effective infrared detector and focal plane array technology has a variety of potential applications. The main applications include infrared imaging systems and imaging spectrometers. The cost-effective infrared detector and imaging focal plane array technology under development in this project provides high FPA performance (high operability, high uniformity, high operating temperature, low 1/f noise). It is suitable for infusion into operational systems of many NASA, Defense, and industrial applications.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:22:31.000Z
Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water treatment systems based upon thermally regenerable ion-exchange (TRIX) resins. Ion-exchange (IX) has been the preferred method for removal of aqueous ionic contaminants due to the efficiency of flow-through beds. Attributes of IX systems include ambient temperature and pressure operation, minimal energy use, rapid and efficient contaminant removal, and compared to other purification technologies, failure mechanisms are relatively benign. However, strong acid and alkali are required to regenerate these beds, making regeneration aboard spacecraft impractical. New hybrid TRIX resins developed at UMPQUA RESEARCH COMPANY offer the potential to remove ionic contaminants from water with an acceptable ESM, while retaining the intrinsic advantages of flow-through IX beds. Testing and further development of TRIX is proposed for removal of ionic contaminants from wastewater generated by future transit and early planetary base missions. The primary program objective will be the demonstration of efficient salt removal from different wastewater sources using TRIX resins. Phase I will demonstrate feasibility of water purification based upon TRIX. Phase II will result in development and testing of a fully functional system suitable for further independent testing by NASA.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:41:48.000Z
Missions to Solar System bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable capabilities in ranging and mapping for soft and precision landing to avoid hazardous sites. A compact and light weight LiDAR instrument is needed for topography mapping, position sensing, laser altimetry, and autonomous rendezvous of satellites. Missions to small bodies such as asteroids, comets, and moons require precision rendezvous and accurate identification of landing or sampling sites. Precision range data significantly improves spacecraft control in close-approach and landing scenarios. Range data is most critical in the final descent phase where the spacecraft is within a few kilometers of the target surface. These missions require improved precision from previously flown lidar technologies as well as significant reductions in size, weight, and power (SWaP) given the resource-constrained class of missions likely to utilize this capability. Q-Peak, in partnership with Sigma Space Corp., is proposing a low-SWaP laser integrated into a compact laser LiDAR instrument that can achieve the desired ranging accuracy and precision with minimum resource from spacecraft bus. In Phase I, Q-Peak proposes the development of an ultra-compact, passively Q-switched laser, < 4 cm3 in volume that will produce > 0.1 mJ pulse energies and < 2 ns-duration pulses at 523 nm at pulse repetition rates of 10-30 kHz. This laser will be specifically designed for integration and testing in the newly developed LiDAR instrument at Sigma Space. In Phase II, Q-Peak will bond the passive Q-switch to the laser gain medium to make it monolithic and essentially alignment free. We will harden the laser and integrate it into the LiDAR instrument to advance the TRL level by subjecting them to a space-like environment.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T03:28:19.000Z
This archive contains Mars Exploration Rover x-ray data products from the APXS instrument and ancillary files. Each product has a detached PDS label that describes the file structure and instrument parameters used for that product. The APXS x-ray products archived on this volume were generated by the APXS Science Team, Max Planck Institute, for the Mars Exploration Rover Project. Supporting documentation and label files conform to the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards, Version 3.6, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) document number D-7669. This archive is designed to be accessed as an online resource.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-20T07:12:45.000Z
It is proposed to develop a process for producing arrays of hexagonal mirror segments with deviation from flatness smaller than 1nm RMS over a 600?m segment span, using novel microfabrication techniques. Each segment will be rigid enough to withstand actuation (piston, tip, and tilt) by a triad of flexure-based electrostatic actuators that have already been demonstrated by the project team. The base for the mirror will be a conventionally surface micromachined silicon film, augmented by a thick epitaxial layer of silicon. Subsequently, this layer will be polished, annealed to relieve stresses, and then coated with a thin film of protected silver. The combined result of thickening, polishing, and annealing will produce segments that are flatter, by more than an order of magnitude, than any micromachined mirror segments that are available today. Preliminary data demonstrate some promise that these processes can be combined effectively. Such an array of mirror segments would constitute a significant technological milestone and an essential component for the visible nulling coronagraph instruments planned for the terrestrial planet finding (TPF) mission. The project team has considerable experience in fabricating micromirror arrays for laser communication, astronomical imaging and visions science applications and BMC is a world leader in the production of commercial high resolution wavefront controllers. The project leverages a existing successful relationship between BMC and JPL.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:10:23.000Z
Piezoelectric actuators constructed with the "smart material" PZT offer many potential advantages for use in NASA cryo-valve missions relative to conventional electromagnetic-driven mechanical actuators. In addition to their very high resolution (a benefit to nanopositioning applications for many years), they offer potential advantages for miniaturization and reduction of heat load as compared to electromagnetic actuators. While some notable successes have been achieved in adapting piezoelectric actuators to cryogenic applications, the technology needs further innovation, development, and validation in order to reach a readiness level that can realistically be considered for use in future missions. Variation in strain rate with temperature, CTE mismatch relative to structural materials, and problems with protective coatings make use of PZT in cryogenic environment difficult. Thorough characterization of existing PZT material and proposed improvements to coatings and structural materials used with PZT transducers offer the potential for higher performance and reliability. With these improvements, it will be practical to use piezoelectric actuators in applications such as high force cryo-valves that can not presently be considered.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T18:48:10.000Z
Under this and several other programs, CTD has developed TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> deployable solid-surface reflectors (TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> Reflectors) to provide future NASA and Air Force missions and commercial communications satellites with large RF apertures that can operate at very high operational frequencies (Ka band and above). TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> Reflectors incorporate non-tensioned graphite composite membranes that are formed using conventional construction techniques and stiffened using CTD's TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> shape-memory composite panels to allow practical packaging and deployment without complex mechanisms. The simplicity of the design provides a significant cost advantage when compared to existing deployable reflector technologies, (4-fold cost reduction over mesh antenna and 2-fold reduction in manufacturing time) and the continuous graphite surface enables high frequency antenna operations at Ka band and above. CTD can stow either a Cassegrainian (center-fed) or Gregorian (offset-fed) 5m TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> Reflectors in a Falcon 1e launch vehicle. To moderate cost and fabrication time, the TEMBO<SUP>REG</SUP> reflector is supported by a deployable backing structure. In the proposed Phase II effort, CTD will further refine innovative backing structure developed in Phase I as well as to develop additional precision capability to enable both the high frequency (Ka band and above), large aperture (5 to 8 meters) performance required for near-term and future NASA programs.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:57:25.000Z
While VPX shows promise as an open standard COTS computing and memory platform, there are several challenges that must be overcome to migrate the technology for a space application. For the Phase I SBIR, SEAKR investigated the 3u VPX architecture for the space environment for advanced memory and processing systems. The SBIR investigation focused on researching innovative switch fabric architectures, identifying and qualifying the building blocks for a space qualified VPX system, and addressed some of the challenges associated with VPX flash memory modules. The areas of innovation that have been addressed are outlined below: Research and evaluate the basic building blocks required for a high speed switch VPX architecture Explore advanced EDAC and innovative wear leveling techniques for commercially upscreened flash memory for space applications Evaluate different techniques for very high speed flash memory access rates The Phase II SBIR will build on the Phase I study to produce a deliverable engineering model of a 3U VPX flash memory module.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:46:51.000Z
CoolCAD Electronics, LLC, proposes to design and fabricate a SiC UV detector array with a 10μm pixel pitch, sensitive to EUV, VUV and Deep UV. SiC is a visible-blind material with very low intrinsic dark current, able to operate at >350C. Expanding from our past successful demonstration of UV sensors and MOSFET circuits on the same substrate, we will develop fabrication processes and capabilities to design and integrate SiC pn-junction photodiodes and low-voltage MOSFET devices with the required small dimensions. To our knowledge, this represents the first program to scale SiC optoelectronic circuits to such feature size restrictions; particularly, a 1μm MOSFET gate length and submicron margins for layer overlaps. Scaling monolithically-integrated sensors and transistors to submicron feature sizes advances the SiC technology state-of-the-art. We plan to extend our process flow and device designs to use a semiconductor reduction stepper during fabrication to enable submicron features. We will demonstrate single pn-junction photodiodes, photodiodes with MOSFETs in the 3-transistor pixel architecture, and arrays of both these structures. We will deliver a 32 x 32 passive array and a 4 x 4 active array that contains SiC MOSFETs as well as photodiodes. This effort lays the groundwork for developing a megapixel array in a future Phase II or related program. We will further design planar SiC avalanche photodiodes and planar APD arrays, as the initial step to monolithically integrating APDs with their readout electronics and therefore obtain a high-temperature-operation-capable detector, sensitive to extremely low illumination levels. The entire design and fabrication will be performed in the United States, and using CoolCAD's patent pending fabrication processes.
Atomic Layer Deposition to Enable the Production, Optimization and Protection of Spaceflight Hardwaredata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:48:09.000Z
<p>Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign temperature and pressure environment. Through the introduction of paired precursor gases thin films can be deposited on a myriad of substrates ranging from glass, polymers, aerogels, and metals to high aspect ratio geometries thus allowing NASA/GSFC to facilitate the production, optimization and protection of valuable space centric hardware. Novel deposition methods and materials justified the design and installation of a custom reactor where dynamic in situ measurements reduced the formulation of the materials system to prototype at a fraction of the cost. Two specific examples of the reactors benefit include the formation of nanolaminated films and additive material protection. Nanolaminate films constitute diverse materials of periodic layers with distinct film thickness that measure on the order of nanometers. The multilayered structure often imparts unique characteristics to the nanolaminate film where the periodic morphology may have physical properties that are far superior to single or pure material films. Polymers and polymer composite materials used for lightweight spacecraft structural components are susceptible to surface damage by high-energy collisions with atomic oxygen found in low-Earth orbit and by the high fluxes of vacuum ultraviolet radiation. Because these materials are insulators, they also can accumulate significant levels of surface charge. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiO2 films is effective at protecting polymer materials, but relatively thick PECVD must be used to eliminate pinholes and to assure sufficient film thicknesses over surfaces with significant topography. An investigation of TiO2 and TiN coupled films is underway. While each of these materials alone can provide a protective layer for the polymer, the TiO2 is particularly well suited to VUV protection and the TiN, being conductive, will help dissipate static charge. A tertiary product of metal oxide ALD is its ability to protect polymeric films such as Kapton from AO erosion in low earth orbiting missions. NASA Glen confirmed this property where samples of Kapton film coated with an ALD of a metal oxide were exposed to AO fluxes equivalent to 10 years resulted in mass conservation of 98%. <p/><p>The project includes working on the Passive Variable Emittance Film Prototype for thermal control, Iridium Coated X-Ray Optic and Boron Nitride Film. Collaborators: University of Maryland</p>