- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T12:56:52.000Z
Recovery of water from brine is critically important for future manned space exploration. Resupply of water is prohibitively costly for such extended missions. Water reclamation processes typically recover 90-95% of the water present in wastewater formed by combining urine, hygiene water, and humidity condensate with the remaining concentrated in brine. This concentrated brine contains a significant amount of water, potentially a very valuable resource. The proposed prototype development will recover virtually all of the remaining water using an ultrasonic brine dewatering system (UBDS). In the UBDS process, extremely small nebulized droplets of the brine are created ultrasonically at the brine-air interface. Small droplets enable quicker drying due to their high relative surface area. This is particularly important when drying brines that contain thermally labile materials, which require relatively low temperature drying. The UBDS prototype has no nozzles to become plugged, requires little power, is simple and small, requires minimal astronaut attention and is compatible with continuous, closed cycle operation that can be made gravity independent. The innovative Phase 2 prototype will fulfill the unmet need to significantly improve water loop closure during extended manned missions. The Phase 2 project will provide an automated UBDS prototype that will be delivered to NASA for further testing.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T07:45:39.000Z
CoolCAD Electronics has developed a patent-pending technology to design and fabricate Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET opto-electronic integrated circuits (ICs). We both fully design and fabricate these SiC Opto-Electronic ICs in the U.S. using our own design methodologies, SiC process recipes and in-house fabrication facility. We will design, fabricate and test SiC Extreme, Vacuum and Deep Ultraviolet photodetectors. We will prototype PN Junction and Schottky barrier linear photodiodes, as well as low dark count avalanche photodiodes. We will design and fabricate a two-dimensional 256 by 256 passive UV SiC focal plane array. Array elements will be fabricated in-house, out of both PN junction and Schottky barrier detectors, using CoolCAD's process and facilities. We will design and fabricate opto-electronic integrated circuits, where we will integrate various types of detectors with a MOS operational amplifier into a single IC to actively convert the photo current to usable voltage levels. We will also design and fabricate an integrated photodetector and 3-Transistor pixel for active readout. Multiple active pixel readout 3-T circuits will be an array to form a SiC active pixel MOS Deep UV imager. Our in-house fabrication process will also be upgraded. We will automate optical alignment to improve our microfabrication resolution and reduce minimum feature size. We will perform gate oxide anneals to improve carrier mobility. Improving mobility and reducing the minimum feature size will increase MOSFET performance and increase speed of opto-integrated circuits. Furthermore, SiC allows for optoelectronic operation at high temperatures. We will test our circuits up to 500C and utilize special metal contact stacks to enhance high temperature reliability. Finally, we will make our in-house process available to NASA and provide a process development kit for use of our fabrication facility to prototype new application specific SiC integrated circuits.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-04-22T02:52:42.000Z
These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie (UMBC/GEST, NASA/GSFC), converted to HDF-EOS5 format. The stewardship of this HDF-EOS5 dataset is part of the MEaSUREs project. GSSTF version 2b (Shie et al. 2010, Shie et al. 2009) generally agreed better with available ship measurements obtained from several field experiments in 1999 than GSSTF2 (Chou et al. 2003) did in all three flux components, i.e., latent heat flux [LHF], sensible heat flux [SHF], and wind stress [WST] (Shie 2010a,b). GSSTF2b was also found favorable, particularly for LHF and SHF, in an intercomparison study that accessed eleven products of ocean surface turbulent fluxes, in which GSSTF2 and GSSTF2b were also included (Brunke et al. 2011). However, a temporal trend appeared in the globally averaged LHF of GSSTF2b, particularly post year 2000. Shie (2010a,b) attributed the LHF trend to the trends originally found in the globally averaged SSM/I Tb's, i.e., Tb(19v), Tb(19h), Tb(22v) and Tb(37v), which were used to retrieve the GSSTF2b bottom-layer (the lowest atmospheric 500 meter layer) precipitable water [WB], then the surface specific humidity [Qa], and subsequently LHF. The SSM/I Tb's trends were recently found mainly due to the variations/trends of Earth incidence angle (EIA) in the SSM/I satellites (Hilburn and Shie 2011a,b). They have further developed an algorithm properly resolving the EIA problem and successfully reproducing the corrected Tb's by genuinely removing the "artifactitious" trends. An upgraded production of GSSTF2c (Shie et al. 2011) using the corrected Tb's has been completed very recently. GSSTF2c shows a significant improvement in the resultant WB, and subsequently the retrieved LHF - the temporal trends of WB and LHF are greatly reduced after the proper adjustments/treatments in the SSM/I Tb's (Shie and Hilburn 2011). In closing, we believe that the insightful "Rice Cooker Theory" by Shie (2010a,b), i.e., "To produce a good and trustworthy 'output product' (delicious 'cooked rice') depends not only on a well-functioned 'model/algorithm' ('rice cooker'), but also on a genuine and reliable 'input data' ('raw rice') with good quality" should help us better comprehend the impact of the improved Tb on the subsequently retrieved LHF of GSSTF2c. This is the Daily (24-hour) product; data are projected to equidistant Grid that covers the globe at 1x1 degree cell size, resulting in data arrays of 360x180 size. A finer resolution, 0.25 deg, of this product has been released as Version 3. The GSSTF, Version 2c, daily fluxes have first been produced for each individual available SSM/I satellite tapes (e.g., F08, F10, F11, F13, F14 and F15). Then, the Combined daily fluxes are produced by averaging (equally weighted) over available flux data/files from various satellites. These Combined daily flux data are considered as the "final" GSSTF, Version 2c, and are stored in this HDF-EOS5 collection. There are only one set of GSSTF, Version 2c, Combined data, "Set1" The "individual" daily flux data files, produced for each individual satellite, are also available in HDF-EOS5, although from different collections: GSSTF_Fxx_2c, where Fxx are the individual satellites (F08, F10, etc..) The input data sets used for this recent GSSTF production include the upgraded and improved datasets such as the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Version-6 (V6) product of brightness temperature [Tb], total precipitable water [W], and wind speed [U] produced by the Wentz of Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), as well as the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis-2 (R2) product of sea skin temperature [SKT], 2-meter air temperature [Tair], and sea level pressure [SLP]. Relevant to this MEaSUREs project, these are converted to HDF-EOS5, and are stored in the GSSTF_NCEP_2c collection. Please use these
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:42:54.000Z
We propose to develop a passive and active source neutron and gamma-ray spectrometer to characterize the abundance of near-surface hydrogen and rock-forming elements on a variety of spacecraft missions to planetary bodies (Moon, Mars, NEOs, comets). The instrument (initially at TRL-2) will use a new type of scintillator, Cs2YLiCl6:Ce (CLYC). CLYC is self-annealing at room temperature and provides both high efficiency detection of neutrons and excellent energy resolution for gamma-rays. The proposed work will investigate the use of a CLYC scintillator with a cosmic-ray background source as well as with an active pulsed neutron generator (PNG) source of neutrons for geochemical analysis. Our goal is to progress the overall instrument package (detector and PNG) to TRL-4. The ability of CLYC to detect both neutrons and gamma-rays (with a photomultiplier tube) has been demonstrated via a previously awarded NASA SBIR to RMD, thus we assert CLYC at TRL-3. The use of CLYC with a PNG is at TRL-2, and our proposal will develop timing-based electronics for the coupled system and perform testing in a laboratory environment, resulting in an overall instrument at TRL-4. Description of Methodology to be used: Task 1: Monte-Carlo modeling to determine optimal detector size based on minimum planetary radius and mission parameters as well as a science trade study of D-D vs. D-T pulsed neutron source with variable pulse rates and length. Task 2: Development of methods for maintaining high-performance characteristics of a CLYC detector in the space environment. Task 3: Development of integrated detector and electronics modules capable of operating in both passive and active source modes. Task 4: Testing of the integrated detector and electronics system with an isotopic and pulsed neutron source. Description of Relevance to PICASSO: This work supports the goals of PICASSO as it increases the TRL of a platform-independent (orbital or surface) instrument that is well suited for several medium-class planetary missions in NASA's Decadal Survey. For example, several science mission objectives specifically referred to by NASA are geochemical characterization during a comet sample return mission, a Trojan Tour and Rendezvous mission, and a rover-based Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin sample return mission. The geochemical data provided by this instrument would directly address NASA's goals and objectives to 'characterize the chemical composition of comets', and to 'determine water resources in lunar polar regions and near-Earth asteroids'.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:39:50.000Z
<p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">Busek proposes to develop a low-cost, lightweight Hall Effect Thruster (HET) Power Processing Unit (PPU) at targeted 1kW/kg power density with more than 97% efficiency. The proposed PPU solution adopts advanced GaN power MOSFETs and PCB based planar magnetics technology to enable high switching frequency operation. Reduced headcount of magnetics, semiconductors and associated driver integrated circuits will allow for significant size reduction of all passive components to support ultra-high power density designs. This innovation will further miniaturize HET PPUs from today’s state-of-art by an anticipated 30% in volume and mass, with cost reductions exceeding 50% versus SOA solutions.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">The unique advantages of the proposed system can be summarized in three parts. First, the system utilizes a novel single-core multi-port circuit topology which integrates all the PPU subsystems through a single stage power conversion using a single multi-winding transformer. This significantly reduces system volume, weight, and cost. Second, the power flow control for each subsystem is fully independent regardless of power stage sharing. Each subsystem has its own phase shift control to regulate the desired output voltage and current. Third, the proposed PPU circuit topology is essentially a soft-switching DC-DC converter which can ensure zero-voltage-switching operation for all the switching devices. The proposal adopts the advanced GaN power MOSFETs and PCB based planar magnetics technology to enable high switching frequency operation, which supports a 30% size reduction of magnetics and other passive components in the high-efficiency and high-power density design.</p> <p style="margin-left:0in; margin-right:0in">In Phase II Busek will characterize the breadboard PPU with sub-kilowatt Hall thrusters and develop a proto-flight brass-board level unit using GaN devices. At the conclusion of Phase II, Busek will deliver a PPU to NASA for additional characterization testing.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:03:20.000Z
As flightdeck equipment becomes more sophisticated and complex, operations become significantly more cognitively demanding. When tasks demands exceed the operator's available cognitive resources, potentially costly errors occur. A task mitigation system that is able to monitor the task and the operator's functional state (OFS) and implement task mitigation strategies before an operator becomes overloaded could significantly reduce errors and allow operators to work more efficiently. This proposal describes the development of a closed-loop task mitigation system that uses advanced regression techniques to identify the relationships between the OFS, the physiological measurements, the mission-related context, and the task mitigation strategies. To maximize accuracy, we use task analysis to develop a computational cognitive model of the planned mission profile, which is then used to train the regression model. The computational cognitive model describes the OFS as a continuous function along four dimensions: executive function, spatial working memory, verbal working memory and attention. The task analysis is also used to develop task mitigation strategies for each psychological dimension that assist the operator with task switching, maintaining awareness of multiple task "threads", and performing cognitively demanding tasks. Finally, the task mitigation strategies enable the system to dynamically allocate tasks among multiple operators.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-09-07T17:40:01.000Z
<p>In the latter half of the 20th century, microprocessors faithfully adhered to Moore’s law, the well-known formulation of exponentially improving performance. As Gordon Moore originally predicted in 1965, the density of transistors, clock speed, and power efficiency in microprocessors doubled approximately every 18 months for most of the past 60 years. Yet this trend began to languish over the last decade. A law known as Dennard scaling, which states that microprocessors would proportionally increase in performance while keeping their power consumption constant, has broken down since about 2006; the result has been a trade-off between speed and power efficiency. Although transistor densities have so far continued to grow exponentially, even that scaling will stagnate once device sizes reach their fundamental quantum limits in the next ten years. </p> <p>Due to this stagnation, processors, like those used for NASA’s navigation, communication, and telemetry systems, lack the scaling necessary to push space exploration further. A more energy efficient architecture/technology is required in order to increase the information bits per unit energy, and push processors architectures pass the thermal limits currently preventing increased speeds. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platforms provide a solution to this emerging challenge. PICs are becoming a key part of communication systems in data centers, where microelectronic compatibility and high-yield, low-cost manufacturing are crucial. Because of their integration, PICs can allow photonic processing at a scale impossible with discrete, bulky optical-fiber counterparts, and scalable, CMOS-compatible silicon-photonic systems are on the cusp of becoming a commercial reality. More specifically, Neuromorphic Photonics allow for the benefits of PICs to be merged with the benefits associated with non Von-Neumann processor architectures allowing for increases in both speed and energy efficiency.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T04:43:04.000Z
This data set contains summary pressure data obtained from the Viking Meteorology Instrument System (VMIS) through the duration of the Viking Lander 1 and 2 missions. The data are derived from the ambient pressure sensor carried onboard the Landers. The data set consists of the daily average pressure values and relevant statistics presented on a sol by sol basis. For further background information on the VMIS and results from this experiment, see CHAMBERLAIN_ETAL1976, HESS_ETAL_1977, TILLMAN_ETAL_1979, HESS_ETAL_1980, and SHARMAN_RYAN_1980. An earlier version of this data set, including descriptive documents and plots on microfiche, is archived at the NSSDC (NSSDC ID 75-075C-07I, 75-075C-07J, 75-083C-07I, and 75-083C-07J).
Revolutionize Propulsion Test Facility High-Speed Video Imaging with Disruptive Computational Photography Enabling Technologydata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:36:09.000Z
<p>Advanced rocket propulsion testing requires high-speed video recording that can capture essential information for NASA during rocket engine flight certification ground testing. While it is important to assess all anomalies during testing, this is particularly true in the event of a mishap. The video recording in use today at NASA’s Stennis Space Center (SSC) is significantly outdated and in need of the revolutionary approach being proposed. The current system has poor resolution and records to VHS tapes that are no longer commercially available. The system has been partially upgraded by incorporating consumer grade digital cameras, but these cameras have significant limitations including plume saturation and on-board memory storage, which make it nearly impossible, in catastrophic situations that result in the loss of a camera, to obtain critical information. This project will design and build a state-of-the-art high-speed video recording system using disruptive technologies based on emerging advances made in the field of computational photography. This system will not only provide quality, high-speed, 3-D high dynamic range video to the SSC engine test complex, but the technologies developed will be extendable to other NASA priorities including launch monitoring and space-based rover and robotics missions. </p><p>This project will design and build a novel state-of-the-art high-speed video recording system to provide 3-D High Dynamic Range (HDR) video imagery for operational use on the SSC engine test stands. The system will leverage newly emerging algorithms being developed within the computational photography discipline. Computational photography expands digital photography by applying computational image capture, processing, and manipulation techniques to improve image quality. HDR imaging effectively increases a camera’s dynamic range and eliminates saturation. Juxtaposed with current imaging techniques, which often utilize either multiple cameras or a single camera with multiple exposure sequencing, the transformative approach will be implemented at the chip level using a single camera, which significantly reduces cost and implementation complexities. Three such cameras will provide multiple viewing, enabling high-speed 3-D HDR imagery, important for a more robust analysis.</p>
Rodent Research-1 (RR1) NASA Validation Flight: Mouse adrenal gland transcriptomic proteomic and epigenomic datadata.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T05:43:20.000Z
NASA s Rodent Research (RR) project is playing a critical role in advancing biomedical research on the physiological effects of space environments. Due to the limited resources for conducting biological experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) it is imperative to use crew time efficiently while maximizing high-quality science return. NASA s GeneLab project has as its primary objectives to 1) further increase the value of these experiments using a multi-omics systems biology-based approach and 2) disseminate these data without restrictions to the scientific community. The current investigation assessed viability of RNA DNA and protein extracted from archived RR-1 tissue samples for epigenomic transcriptomic and proteomic assays. During the first RR spaceflight experiment a variety of tissue types were harvested from subjects snap-frozen or RNAlater-preserved and then stored at least a year at -80C after return to Earth. They were then prioritized for this investigation based on likelihood of significant scientific value for spaceflight research. All tissues were made available to GeneLab through the bio-specimen sharing program managed by the Ames Life Science Data Archive and included mouse adrenal glands quadriceps gastrocnemius tibialis anterior extensor digitorum longus soleus eye and kidney. We report here protocols for and results of these tissue extractions and thus the feasibility and value of these kinds of omics analyses. In addition to providing additional opportunities for investigation of spaceflight effects on the mouse transcriptome and proteome in new kinds of tissues our results may also be of value to program managers for the prioritization of ISS crew time for rodent research activities.