- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:10:40.000Z
NASA has identified a need for a tool that will give a non-expert the ability to quickly create animation of a mission scenario. This type of depiction can be important during a mission's development phase. Animation can show things that are not possible to see in the physical world and can help explain difficult concepts. Animation allows visualization of the mission without having to understand all the physics required. The communication of any mission scenarios through the medium of video - be it live action or animation - requires a particular set of skills: most notably, a sense of timing and layout. The sense of timing in animation can be compared to that of music; length, rhythm and order are the crucial elements for an effective delivery of an idea or emotion. Professional animators acquire this knowledge through formal training, education and years of experience. Although it would be impossible to impart this knowledge instantaneously, with current technology it can be encapsulated within a set of "digital elements" that can be manipulated and arranged to form a coherent stream of images (video) with order and meaning. Our proposed innovation is to develop a set of tools that can be used by a non-expert to build a virtual mission scenario that can be used for analysis, presentations and outreach. We will create a method for developing a collection of elements (objects, actions) with initial focus, space mission specific. The toolset will have elements that have the animation expertise incorporated. This will reduce the need for the user to have animation experience.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T20:25:26.000Z
Propulsion test stands are designed for thermal and pressure loads for certain classes of engines. These plume induced loads are: radiative heating, acoustics and direct impingement convective heating and pressure loads. Existing test stands will be used to test a wide variety of new propulsion systems, engines and engine components which will require the evaluation of the test stand design to handle loads that are a function of engine location, chamber pressure history and gimbaling. Existing models require large numbers of individual calculations to evaluate the various engine operating parameters. The Phase I effort will utilize existing models to develop a PC based test stand design constraints model that automatically determines engine operating limits for existing facilities. The Phase I effort will establish test stand design data base requirements, modify existing test stand environments models to automatically cycle through the entire range of engine operating parameters for a single design variable, and demonstrate the model for an existing stand. The Phase II effort expands the models capabilities for all design constraints and develops a CAD module for importing test stand design information. This effort is innovative in that it will greatly reduce the cost/time for testing new engine designs.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:25:41.000Z
<p>The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight software for their intended target processor. The cFS Kit will provide a complete, ready to use cFS-based flight software development solution preconfigured for a number of flight processors, in an effort to reduce the cost of flight software development, integration, test, and operation.</p> <p>For at least two decades, there has been an effort to reduce the cost of flight software, without reducing the quality or reliability. Flight software for a science instrument and spacecraft is a custom development effort, requiring a significant investment for any size mission. To help reduce this cost, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a reusable flight software framework, along with a suite of applications known as the Core Flight System (cFS). The cFS has been successfully used on multiple missions including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO - launched 6/18/2009), the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE - launched 9/6/2013), the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM - launched 2/27/2014), and the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS - launched 3/12/2015), with others currently in development. The cFS is also being used in many different research efforts across NASA, and is currently being adapted by the Johnson Space Flight Center for human rated applications. The cFS is open source, and is rapidly becoming the standard for satellite flight software. The cFS is starting to show real reductions in the flight software cost and schedule.</p><p>On the hardware side, there have been advances in miniaturization and reductions in cost that have enabled a new class of Nano satellites commonly known as CubeSats. Many scientists see CubeSats as a way of advancing science objectives that would otherwise have to wait for large flagship missions. CubeSats can also take advantage of launch opportunities by hitching a ride on larger missions, or being deployed from the ISS.</p><p>While the hardware for a CubeSat mission is significantly less expensive than a traditional science spacecraft, providing fully functional, reliable, and tested flight software is still a significant expense. Many CubeSat missions simply do not have the schedule or the budget for a typical NASA flight software development effort, leading to shortcuts that can reduce the chance of mission success.</p><p>Given the state of CubeSat development, it seems that the cFS is a perfect solution for CubeSat flight software. While the cFS is shaping up to be a very effective solution for CubeSats, the amount of time to adapt the cFS to a CubeSat is still potentially greater than the flight software budget allocated for the mission. Even though the cFS eliminates the need to do a large amount of flight software development, there is still a significant effort to bring up the cFS on a target platform, configure, integrate, and test the cFS. The ground system integration adds even more complexity and effort to that task. Large missions such as MMS or GPM can absorb this cost and schedule, but a CubeSat mission cannot.</p><p>The cFS Kit will enable lower cost flight software by providing an <em>“out of the box”</em> cFS-based flight software solution. The initial kit will provide a software-only runtime environment that includes a ground system, the cFS, and a dynamic simulator. This configuration will allow closed loop simulation so a complete example flight software application suite can be provided. COSMOS, a Ball Aerospace open source general purpose user Interface for command and control of embedded systems will be used for the ground system. 42, a GSFC open source dynamic simulator will be used for the simulator. The second phase of the runtime environment will be to integrate a CubeSat processor board such as the SmallSat/CubeSat Electronics Board (SC
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:17:56.000Z
Eddy fluxes of CO2 and H2O are measured at two levels (58m and 47m) using tower-mounted closed-path Licor 6262 analyzers and Campbell CSAT3 sonic anemometers. A third Licor gas analyzer measures (a) the CO2/H2O concentration profile (1 of 8 levels every 2 minutes) and (b) the instantaneous integrated canopy storage of CO2/H2O, using a design pulling air simultaneously through 8 inlets (once every 20 minutes). Comprehensive meteorological data (air temperature, PAR, net radiation, etc) are also included. Pressure and temperature of the Licor cells are controlled to 500 torr and 48 degrees C. Eddy licors are automatically zeroed every 2 hours and the profile licor every 20 minutes. All Licors are automatically calibrated with span gases (at 325, 400, and 475 ppm) every 6 hours.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:33:58.000Z
<p>Substantial research shows that skeletal muscle undergoes atrophy during spaceflight. Because maintenance of the musculoskeletal system is of crucial importance for mobility of astronauts during long-duration missions and upon return to 1-G, it is vital to learn as much as possible about muscle structure and function. Current reports on muscle atrophy following disuse or microgravity are based on study of a single anatomical cross-sectional area, a measurement that ignores more detailed changes in muscle structure. Significant insight into the relationship between muscle structure and function could be achieved by improving muscle imaging techniques. In particular, acquisition of ultrasound imaging during muscle contraction to monitor muscle dynamics could provide critical information regarding microgravity-induced strength loss.<p/><p>Maintenance of the musculoskeletal system is of crucial importance for mobility of astronauts during long-duration missions and upon return to 1-G. However, substantial research shows that skeletal muscle undergoes atrophy during spaceflight. Reports on muscle atrophy are typically based on study of cross-sectional area, a measurement that ignores more detailed changes in muscle structure. Knowledge of the structure of skeletal muscle is key to understanding its function. Ultrasound imaging of muscle during contraction could provide important insight into the relationship between muscle structure and function. Importantly, the use of novel ultrasonographic techniques to evaluate dynamic muscle structure may provide critical information regarding the underlying mechanisms of microgravity-induced strength loss. Five subjects performed various passive and active contractions while ultrasound images of the rectus femoris were obtained. We demonstrated that acquisition of contracting muscle is obtainable using a high frequency ultrasound probe, and that the contracting muscle can be tracked with various algorithms using a custom Matlab program. This work was completed in September, 2012. Further investigations are needed to determine the most valid algorithm for tracking muscle, to assess the reliability of the muscle tracking technique, and to ascertain the association between torque and skeletal muscle strain. Tracking Algorithms in Matlab Program: Ultrasound images of tissue consist of a set of intensity forming 'speckles' that create patterns. If the ultrasound probe remains in the same position during a movement, the changes in the speckle patterns represent movements in the tissue. These movements can be directly and actively followed using speckle-tracking algorithms. Movements of the tissue over the course of an image sequence can then be quantified by monitoring changes in the position of the speckles. Five muscle tracking algorithms were tested with each algorithm outputting muscle strain throughout contractions. Analysis of Ultrasound Images with Matlab Program: On a typical ultrasound image (Figure), the cross sectional area of the muscle (rectus femoris) appears in the center of the image. Visual inspection confirmed that relative motion between the edges can be used to estimate the changes in length and thickness of the muscle. The muscle tracking algorithms automatically tracked the change in position of each marker from the initial frame to subsequent frames for the duration of the contraction.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T13:26:42.000Z
Wide bandgap SiC power devices have the potential for reliable operations at higher junction temperatures, higher voltages, higher frequencies and thus higher power densities than what can be achieved with Si devices. These advantages enable the SiC technology-based power conversion systems (PCM) to be made smaller, lightweight, more efficient and robust. Recent studies predicted that the volume of a power converter system could be reduced five times through the utilization of SiC power devices. Despite this potential promise and encouraging results, more studies are needed to address the design and fabrication of SiC-based PCMs before their full potential can be realized. This project will develop an ultrahigh-efficiency, light and compact power converter system based on emerging SiC semiconductor technologies, quantifying the system benefits and addressing the related technical issues. The Phase I work include: (1) Circuit design of an SiC-based converter and modeling to evaluate the converter performance (power loss, efficiency, temperature rise, and weight/size heatsink etc.), and (2) High temperature packaging and high power density thermal management to support the SiC converter.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T09:38:53.000Z
Advanced reconfigurable/reprogrammable communication systems will require use of commercial sub 100 nm electronics. Legacy radiation tolerant circuits fail to provide Single Event Upset (SEU) immunity at speeds greater than 500 MHz. New base level logic circuits have been demonstrated in Phase I that provide SEU immunity for sub 100 nm high speed circuits. A completely new circuit and system approach called Self Recovery Logic (SRL) is proposed for development herein which is able to function at the full speed afforded by the fabrication process and able to tolerate SEU impacts not possible with legacy circuits. Moreover, a truly fault tolerant system is projected to replace Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) as the on-chip means for fault tolerance. With the proposed building blocks in place, advanced reconfigurable and reprogrammable high speed devices can be implemented. The proposed work herein creates a robust test circuit for fabrication and radiation testing to prove conclusively that SRL is a superior technology and then to create an SRL synthesis library that can be used with commercial synthesis tools to create advanced communication systems.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T10:17:50.000Z
NASA has a critical requirement for a wearable device that can provide objective measures of sleep and activity for its crew during long duration spaceflight. In the proposed program, we will develop an unobtrusive wrist worn monitor that places minimum burden on the crew in operating the device. The device, once worn, requires no action from the crew and automatically records and analyzes actigraphy and sleep data. The device will have battery life of about one year and wireless data transfer so the crew will not be burdened with recharging the device and downloading data from the device. The monitoring device will provide real-time feedback on the level of activity and duration and quality of sleep. The proposed device is based on an existing sleep and activity monitor which we will modify and enhance to make it suitable for use in spaceflight environments. Data format, including epoch length and sleep statistics provided by the proposed system will conform to formats currently used in sleep research. In Phase 1, we will deliver a set of fully functional devices that can be deployed in spaceflight analogs. We will also perform feasibility studies of a Phase 2 unit, which will measure, in addition to sleep, activity and heart rate, other physiological parameters such as heart rate variability, blood pressure, vasoconstriction, pulsewave velocity, and electrodermal activity. Since the work is based on an existing sleep and activity monitoring platform, we expect that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the Phase 1 unit to be at 7, and the Phase 2 unit to be at 8.
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2018-07-19T08:03:27.000Z
<p>This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction methods are expensive, time-consuming or restricted to small, limited formats. Graphene has potential uses in ultracapacitors, energy storage, solar cells, flexible and light-weight circuits, touch screens, and chemical sensors. In addition, graphite oxide is a sustainable material that can be produced from any form of carbon, making this method environmentally friendly and adaptable for in-situ reduction.</p> <p>We plan to expand the existing collimated laser beam used in the reduction of graphite oxide into graphene to cover an area of 30 cm x 30 cm. The laser power output and scan rate will be experimentally modified to determine the optimum values for the even reduction of the graphite oxide film. Samples will the examined with XPS and Raman spectroscopy to determine the level of graphene production and its homogeneity.</p>
- API data.nasa.gov | Last Updated 2019-06-03T15:17:27.000Z
The GPM Ground Validation UND Citation Navigation Data IPHEx dataset supplies navigation data collected by the Cessna Citation II aircraft for flights that occurred during March 6, 2014 through June 13, 2014 for the Global Precipitation Measurement Ground Validation Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field campaign in North Carolina. The goal of IPHEx was to evaluate the accuracy of satellite precipitation measurements and use the collected data for hydrology models in the region. The Cessna Citation II Research aircraft, owned and operated by the University of North Dakota (UND), participated in the IPHEx field campaign by serving as an in situ microphysics sampling platform. This navigation dataset consists of final processed files containing records that include flight time, aircraft location (latitude, longitude, and altitude), air temperature, wind speed, and other relevant aircraft parameters in ASCII format.